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Lanarkshire Parishes

Information on each of the counties Parishes has been taken from 'A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland' by Samuel Lewis, 1846. 
 
This information should provide you with further details in relation to the area, its history, industries & people.

Avondale

AVONDALE, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing, with the market-town of Strathaven, 6180 inhabitants. The proper name of this parish, which, from its including the market-town, has been called sometimes Strathaven, and, by contraction, Straven, is Avondale, an appellation derived from its situation on the river Avon, by which it is divided into two nearly equal parts. The barony of Avondale was anciently the property of the Baird family, and subsequently belonged to the Earl of Douglas, on whose forfeiture, in 1455, it was granted, by James III., to Andrew Stewart, whom he created Lord Avondale, and who exchanged it for the barony of Ochiltree, with Sir James Hamilton, in whose family it has ever since remained. The place has derived some historical celebrity from the defeat of the troops under General Claverhouse, at Drumclog, by a congregation of Covenanters, who had assembled there for public worship, and, anticipating an attack by the former, who were stationed at Strathaven, had provided themselves with arms for their defence. On the approach of Claverhouse, with his dragoons, the armed part of the congregation went forward to meet him, and, taking post on level ground, having before them a rivulet, over which the general had to pass, and of which the bank was, from its softness, impassable to the cavalry, defeated his forces with considerable loss, the general himself escaping with difficulty. In 1820, the place was disturbed by a few rioters, under the command of James Wilson, who, upon false intelligence that a rebellion against the government had broken out in Glasgow, marched thither to join the insurgents; but they were instantly dispersed, and their leader, who was made prisoner, was brought to the scaffold, and suffered the penalty of his rebellion.

The parish comprises about 32,000 acres, of which 15,000 are arable, and the remainder, with the exception of some tracts of moss and marsh land, formerly more extensive, is in pasture. The surface is generally level, rising gently from the banks of the river towards the south and west, and partially intersected with ridges and small hills, of which the highest, towards the borders of Ayrshire, scarcely attain an elevation of more than 900 feet above the sea. Of these, the most prominent are, Kype's rigg, and Hawkwood and Dungivel hills, with the picturesque but smaller eminences of Floors hills and Kirkhill. The Avon, which rises on the confines of Ayrshire, in its course through the parish receives numerous tributary streams, of which the chief are, the Cadder and Pomilion on the north, and the Givel, the Lochan, and the Kype, on the south; the waters of the Kype, about a mile to the south of the town, are precipitated from a height of nearly fifty feet, forming an interesting fall, and in all these streams trout is abundant. Salmon were formerly found in the Avon, even at its source; but latterly, their progress upward has been intercepted. The scenery of the parish, though destitute of ornamental wood, is pleasingly varied, and, in many parts, picturesque.

The soil is generally fertile; the chief crops are, oats and barley, with some wheat; potatoes are also raised in great quantities, and are sold for seed; but, though the soil is extremely favourable for turnips, they are not much cultivated. There are numerous dairy-farms, and the pastures throughout the parish are luxuriant; great numbers of cows, principally of the Ayrshire breed, are pastured here, and there are, at present, not less than 2000 acres of undivided common. Many improvements have been made in draining; and the whole of Strathaven moss, comprising above 200 acres of unprofitable land, has been reclaimed, affording more valuable crops than any other portion of the parish. The rateable annual value of the parish is £24,785. Whinstone abounds, as does also ironstone; and limestone is found in several parts, and burnt for manure; coal is also found in the neighbourhood of the limekilns, in considerable quantity, and of a quality sufficient for burning the lime, but not adapted to household use. The moors abound with grouse and other game, and the Duke of Hamilton has an extensive tract of pasture land for sheep, which is kept for grouse shooting; partridges are also numerous in the lower lands, and plovers and wild ducks are every where abundant. The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Duke of Hamilton; the minister's stipend is £305. 2. 6., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £24 per annum. There is also an assistant minister, appointed by his grace, to whom a stipend of 500 marks is paid, according to the will of a late duchess; he visits the sick, and catechises the parishioners. The church, erected in 1772, is a plain edifice, with an unfinished spire, and much too small for the population, being adapted for a congregation only of 800 persons. Under the auspices of the present minister, an additional church has been erected, at an expense of £1400, for 900 persons, to which a district called East Strathaven has been assigned, and which is supplied by a minister appointed by the congregation. There is a place of worship for members of the Associate Seceding Synod, and there are two for members of the Relief Church. The parochial school affords an efficient education; the master's salary is £34. 4. 4., with £36 from the fees, and a good house and garden. There is also a parochial school for East Strathaven. Some remains of a Roman road may be traced on the south side of the river Avon, passing by the farm of Walesley; and on the lands of Gennerhill, small coins and Roman sandals have been discovered. Roman coins have also been recently found on the lands of Torfoot, near Loudoun hill, supposed to have been the line of the Romans, in their route through the Caledonian forest, towards the western coast.

Barony see Glasgow

Biggar

BIGGAR, a parish and market-town, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 12 miles (S. E.) from Lanark, on the road from Dumfries to Edinburgh; containing 1865 inhabitants, of whom 1395 are in the town. The original name of this place, as it occurs in several ancient charters, is generally written Biger, or Bigre, and is supposed to have been derived from the nature of the ground on which the castle of the family of Biggar was situated (in the centre of a soft morass), and to have been thence applied to the whole of the parish; and from the same circumstance, the castle assumed the name of Boghall. The manor was granted by David I. to Baldwin, a Flemish leader, whose descendants still retain the surname of Fleming; they appear to claim a very remote antiquity, and the name of Baldwin de Biger appears in testimony to a charter, prior to the year 1160. Some accounts, chiefly traditional, are still retained of a battle fought at this place, between the English forces under Edward I., and the Scots commanded by Wallace, in which the former were defeated; and though not authenticated by any historian of acknowledged authority, the probability of the event is partly strengthened by the frequent discovery of broken armour in a field near the town; the name of a rivulet called the Red Syke, running through the supposed field of battle, and so named from the slaughter of the day; and the evident remains of an encampment in the immediate neighbourhood. On this occasion, Wallace is said to have gained admission into the enemy's camp, disguised as a dealer in provisions, and, after having ascertained their numbers and order, to have been pursued in his retreat to the bridge over Biggar water, when, turning on his pursuers, he put the most forward of them to death, and made his escape to his army, who were encamped on the heights of Tinto. A wooden bridge over the Biggar is still called the "Cadger's Brig;" and on the north side of Bizzyberry, are a hollow in a rock, and a spring, which are called respectively Wallace's seat and well. The Scottish army under Sir Simon Fraser is said to have rendezvoused here, the night previous to the victory of Roslin, in 1302; and Edward II., on his invasion of Scotland, in 1310, spent the first week of October at this place, while attempting to pass through Selkirk to Renfrew. In 1651, after Cromwell's victory at Perth, the Scottish army, passing by Biggar, summoned the place, at that time garrisoned by the English, to surrender; and in 1715, Lockhart, of Carnwath, the younger, raised a troop for the service of the Pretender, which, after remaining for some time here, marched to Dumfries, and joined the forces under Lord Kenmure.

The town is finely situated on the Biggar water, by which it is divided into two very unequal parts, the smaller forming a beautiful and picturesque suburb, communicating with the town by a neat bridge; the houses in this suburb are built on the sloping declivities, and on the brow, of the right bank of the rivulet, and have hanging gardens. The town consists of one wide street, regularly built, and from its situation on rising ground, commands an extensive and varied view; most of the houses are of respectable appearance, and within the last few years, several new and handsome houses have been erected. There is a scientific institution, founded in the year 1839. A public library was established in 1791, which contains about 800 volumes; another was opened in 1800, which has a collection of more than 500; and a third, exclusively a theological library, was founded in 1807, and has about 700 volumes. A public newsroom was opened in 1828; but it met with little support, and has consequently been discontinued. The trade consists chiefly in the sale of merchandise for the supply of the parish and surrounding district, and in the weaving of cloth, in which latter about 200 of the inhabitants are employed. A branch of the Commercial bank was established in 1833, and a building erected for its use, which adds much to the appearance of the town; and a branch of the Western Bank of Scotland has since been established. A savings' bank was opened in 1832, for the accommodation of the agricultural labourers, of whom there are about 460 depositors; and the amount of their deposits is about £3500. The market is on Thursday; and fairs are held at Candlemas, for hiring servants; at Midsummer, for the sale of wool; and on the last Thursday in October (O. S.), for horses and black-cattle; all of which are numerously attended. The inhabitants, in 1451, received from James II. a charter, erecting the town into a free burgh of barony, and granting a weekly market and other privileges, which grants were renewed, at intervals, down to the year 1662.

The parish, which borders on the county of Peebles, is about 6½ miles in length, and varies very greatly in breadth, being of triangular form, and comprising about 5850 Scottish acres, chiefly arable land. The surface is generally hilly, though comprising a considerable proportion of level ground, particularly towards the south, where is a plain of large extent; the hills are of little height, and the acclivities, being gentle, afford excellent pasture. The principal stream is the Biggar water, which rises on the north side of the parish, and, after a course of nearly two miles, intersects the town, and flows through a fine open vale, to the river Tweed; the Candy burn rises in the north-east portion of the parish, which it separates from the county of Peebles, and falls, after a course of three miles, into the Biggar water. The scenery is highly diversified; and the approach to the town, by the Carnwath road, presents to the view a combination of picturesque features. The soil is various; about 1000 acres are of a clayey nature, on a substratum of clay or gravel; 2000 are a light black loam, resting upon whinstone, and the remainder sandy, and black loam inclining to peat-moss. The system of agriculture is greatly improved, and green crops have been introduced with success; the chief produce consists of oats and barley; much attention is paid to the management of the dairy, and to the improvement of live stock. The cattle are mostly a cross between the native and the Ayrshire breed, which latter is every day becoming more predominant; many sheep are pastured on the hills and acclivities, and the principal stock regularly reared are of the old Tweeddale breed. Great progress has been made in draining and inclosing the lands; two mills for oats and barley have been erected, and there are not less than twenty-five threshing-machines, of which one, constructed by Mr. Watts, has the water-wheel 50 feet below the level of the barn, and 120 feet distant from it, the power being communicated to the machinery by shafts acting on an inclined plane. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7329. About 750 acres are in plantations, chiefly Scotch fir, in the management of which much improvement has been made by the introduction of a new method of pruning; and on the several farmsteads, are numerous fine specimens of the hard-wood timber, which is better adapted to the soil, and is consequently growing gradually into use, in the more recent plantations. Of these, the ash and elm seem to thrive best; and the beech and the plane also answer well. Among the various mansions are, Edmonston, a castellated structure, pleasingly situated in a secluded vale near the east end of the parish; Biggar Park and Cambus-Wallace, both handsome residences, in the immediate vicinity of the town; and Carwood, a spacious mansion, recently erected, and surrounded by young and thriving plantations.

The origin of the parish is rather obscure; but it appears that a chaplaincy was founded here, in expiation of the murder of John, Lord Fleming, chamberlain of Scotland, who was, in 1524, assassinated by John Tweedie, of Drummelzier, his son, and other accomplices. For this purpose, an assessment in lands was given to Malcolm, Lord Fleming, son of the murdered lord, with £10 per annum granted in mortmain, for the support of a chaplain, to pray and sing mass for the soul of the deceased in the parish church of Biggar, which Malcolm, in 1545, made collegiate, and endowed for a provost, eight canons and prebendaries, and four choristers, with six aged poor men. On this occasion, the church of Thankertoun, which had previously been bestowed on the abbey of Kelso, by one of his predecessors, was given up to Malcolm, by the monks, and annexed to the collegiate church. The parish is now in the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of the family of Fleming; the minister's stipend is £263. 4. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The church, erected in 1545, was formerly an elegant and venerable cruciform structure in the later English style, with a tower which was not finished, as the Reformation occurred while the building was in progress. This structure, though complete in every other respect, and uninjured by time, has been dreadfully mutilated: the western porch, the vestry communicating with the chancel, and having a richly-groined roof, the buttresses that supported the north wall of the nave, and the arched gateway leading into the churchyard, though perfectly entire, and beautiful specimens of architecture, were all taken down about fifty years since, and the materials sold for £7, to defray some parochial expenses. The interior of the church underwent, at the same time, a similar lamentable devastation; the organgallery was removed, and the richly-groined roof of the chancel, which was embellished with gilt tracery, was destroyed, and replaced with lath and plaster, for uniformity. The church has lately received an addition of 120 sittings, by the erection of a gallery; it has been also newly-seated, and affords considerable accommodation. There are places of worship for Burghers, and those of the Relief Church. The parochial school affords education to about 180 scholars; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., about £75 fees, and a house and garden.

At the western extremity of the town, is a large mound, more than 300 feet in circumference at the base, 150 feet on the summit, and 36 feet in height, supposed to have been, in ancient times, a seat for the administration of justice; it appears to have been also used as a beacon, and to have formed one of a chain extending across the vale between the Clyde and the Tweed. There are several remains of encampments, of which one, about half a mile from the town, is 180 feet in circumference, defended by a deep moat and double rampart; and near Candy bank, is another, of oval form. On the banks of Oldshields, are some Druidical remains consisting of four upright stones, near which arrow-heads of flint have been found; and on the lands of Carwood, two Roman vessels of bronze were discovered in a moss; one, holding about two quarts, has a handle and three legs, and the other, less elegant in form, holds about eight quarts. The venerable remains of the castle of Boghall, which gave so great an interest to the scenery of the beautiful vale in which they were situated, have been almost demolished, for the sake of the stone; and little more is left than a small angular tower, which serves to mark the site. The late Dr. A. Brown, Professor of Rhetoric in the University of Edinburgh, and Robert Forsyth, Esq., an eminent advocate, were natives of the parish; and many of the landed proprietors have been eminently distinguished in the annals of their country.

Biggar Kirk.jpg

Biggar Kirk

Blantyre

BLANTYRE, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Auchinraith, Auchintiber, Barnhill, Blantyre, Blantyre-Works, Hunthill, and Stonefield; and containing 3047 inhabitants, of whom 1464 are in the village of Blantyre-Works, and 264 in that of Blantyre, or Kirkton, 3 miles (N. W.) from Hamilton, and 8¼ (S. S. E.) from Glasgow. The lands formerly belonged to the Dunbars, of Enteckin, in which family they remained till the Reformation, when they were purchased by Walter Stewart, son of Lord Minto, treasurer of Scotland, upon whom, on the suppression of monastic establishments, the ancient priory of this place was bestowed by James VI., who also created him Lord Blantyre. The priory is said to have been founded by Alexander II., as a cell to the abbey of Jedburgh, or, according to Spottiswoode, of Holyrood House; and Walter, who was prior at that time, was one of the commissioners appointed to negotiate for the ransom of David Bruce, the Scottish king, who had been made prisoner by the English, in the battle of Durham, in 1346. The remains of the priory, which are very inconsiderable, are situated on the summit of a high rock on the bank of the river Clyde, opposite to the ruins of Bothwell Castle; and little more than one of the vaults, which is still entire, with two gables, and a portion of the outer walls, is remaining. The buildings were of red granite; and the ruins form, in combination with the castle, an interesting feature in the scenery.

The parish extends for six miles in length, from north to south, and varies greatly in breadth, not averaging more than one mile in the whole; it comprises 4170 acres, of which, excepting 200 acres of moss land and plantations, all is arable. The principal rivers are, the Clyde, which enters the parish at a short distance below Bothwell bridge, and forms a boundary between this place and the parish of Bothwell for about three miles, flowing majestically between lofty banks richly clothed with wood; and the Calder, which enters the parish near Rottenburn, and, after forming several picturesque falls, in its course along the western boundary, flows into the Clyde near Daldowie. The tributary streams are, the Redburn, which has its source in the lands of Park farm, and joins the Clyde near Bothwell bridge; and two other rivulets, one rising in the lands of Shott, and one at Newmain, which also fall into the river Clyde. Salmon are taken in abundance near the mill-dam of Blantyre. The scenery is, in many parts, exceedingly beautiful; the parish is generally well wooded, and diversified with gently undulating eminences and fertile dales. The soil is various, being in some parts a fine rich loam, in others a strong clay, and in others sand, with some portions of moss; the system of agriculture is improved, and good crops of various kinds of grain are raised. Great improvement has been made in draining the lands, and a considerable tract called Blantyre moor, formerly a common, has been subdivided, and brought into cultivation; the farm houses and buildings are of superior order. The rateable annual value of the parish is £8280. Peat for fuel is cut on Edge Moss, and coal, of which the veins are but very thin, is worked at Calderside and Rottenburn; limestone of a quality well adapted for building, and for agricultural purposes, is wrought in the southern part of the parish. Ironstone, also, is abundant, and at Black-Craig, on the borders of the parish, not less than seventeen different seams are seen, superincumbent on each other; the ironstone is worked in the parish of Kilbride, where are the openings of the mines, but the strata lie principally in this parish.

The principal village is situated on an eminence over-looking the river Clyde, and in the midst of a beautiful country, embellished with timber of venerable and stately growth. It appears to have attained its present importance and extent, from the introduction of the cotton manufacture by Messrs. Dale and Monteith, who, in 1785, erected a mill for the spinning of cotton-yarn, and, in the year 1791, another for the making of mule twist. In 1813, Messrs. Monteith and Company erected a weaving factory, in which the number of looms has, since that time, increased from 450 to nearly 600; and around these works, giving profitable employment to a large number of the population, the present village has been erected. In the two spinning-mills, which are both worked by water power, are 30,000 spindles, affording occupation to about 500 persons; and in the weaving establishment, the works of which are driven partly by water power, and partly by steam, are 600 power-looms, in the management of which more than 300 persons are regularly employed. In connexion with these works, is an establishment for dyeing cotton-yarn with the Turkey red. The total number of persons employed in all the departments, is nearly 1000, of whom more than 500 are females; the houses in the village are comfortable and neatly built, and it is watched and cleansed by persons paid by the company, who have also built a public washing-house, and appropriated a large bleach green, on the banks of the Clyde, for the use of the inhabitants, who are supplied with hard and soft water, for domestic use, by force-pumps at the factory. A library has been for some years established, which contains an extensive collection of useful volumes.

The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is about £184, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum. The parish church, which is not in good repair, was erected in 1793, and will only hold about 300 persons. There is a chapel at the Blantyre Mills, erected by the company for the accommodation of the work-people employed there, and containing sittings for 400 persons; the minister's stipend is paid, one-half by the proprietors of the works, and the other half from the seat-rents. A place of worship has been erected for members of the Free Church. The parochial school affords a liberal education; the salary of the master is £26, with £19 fees. There is also a school for the children of the workpeople at the mills, to which purpose the chapel is applied, during the week; the master is appointed by the company, who give him a house and garden rent free, and a salary of £20. Ancient urns have been, at various times, discovered in several parts of the parish; some of these were inclosed in a kind of kistvaen, covered by heaps of loose stones, and contained ashes, with remnants of half-burnt bones scattered round them. Within the last few years, a stone coffin was discovered, containing an urn of baked earth, in which was a skull with the teeth nearly entire and in good preservation; and fragments of six larger, and more richly ornamented, urns were found in another part of the same field, which is now called "Archers Croft." Stone coffins have also been found at Lawhill and Greenhall, and other places situated within the limits of the parish. At Calderside, is a large hill called the Camp-Know, of conical form, 600 feet in circumference at the base, and surrounded by a moat; and near it is a kind of subterraneous cavern of flags. At Park farm is a fine spring, which has long been in high repute for the cure of scorbutic affections and diseases of the eye; it is strongly impregnated with sulphur, combined with muriate and sulphate of lime, and was formerly much resorted to by numerous invalids from Glasgow and its neighbourhood. There are also various mineral springs on the banks of the river Calder. The late John Miller, Esq., professor of law in the university of Glasgow, resided for some years at Milheugh, in the parish, and was buried in the churchyard

Bothwell

BOTHWELL, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Bellshill, Chapelhall, Holytown, Newarthill, and Uddingston; and containing 11,175 inhabitants, of whom 570 are in the village of Bothwell, 8 miles (S. E.) from Glasgow. The name is supposed, by some, to be derived from Both, an eminence, and wall, a castle, terms applied to the parish from the elevated situation of Bothwell Castle above the river Clyde; others derive it from two Celtic words, both, signifying a dwelling, and ael, or hyl, a river, as descriptive of the castle in its contiguity to the river. This extensive barony, in the reign of Alexander I., was held by Walter Olifard, justiciary of Lothian, who died in 1242; it afterwards came into the possession of the family of Moray, consisting, at that date, of a tower and fortalice, with their appurtenances, and of lands in various districts, constituting a lordship. In the time of Edward I. of England, it became a place of great importance, and it appears that that monarch resided in the castle from the 17th to the 20th September, 1301; in this reign, also, it was the residence of Aylmer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, who fled hither from Loudon Hill, where he had been defeated by Wallace, in 1307, and who, in 1309, was made governor of the castles of Selkirk and Bothwell. At the time of the battle of Bannockburn, Sir Walter Fitzgilbert, ancestor of the Hamilton family, was governor; and after the death of Bruce, when Edward III. invaded Scotland, in 1336, the king was at the castle from the 18th November till the 13th December, in the course of which time fifteen writs were issued thence, in his name. It came, at length, to the Earl of Bothwell, from whom it descended to Archibald the Grim, Earl of Douglas; and, after passing through many other hands, it reverted to the ancient family of Douglas in 1715. The collegiate church of Bothwell was founded on the 10th October, 1398, in the reign of Robert II., by the first earl of Douglas, for a provost and eight prebendaries, and was richly endowed. Most of the superiorities, with part of the property, and all the tithes, now belong to the Duke of Hamilton. Bothwell-Bridge, in the southern part of the parish, is celebrated in history for the battle fought there, in 1679, between the Covenanters and the Duke of Monmouth; and at a little distance, is Bothwell-Haugh, formerly the property of James Hamilton, who shot the regent Murray, for confiscating a part of his estate, and the barbarous treatment of his wife, on account of his having espoused the cause of Mary, Queen of Scots.

The parish is, in extreme length, about 8½ miles, and varies in breadth from 2 to 4 miles, containing 13,600 acres; it is bounded on the north and west by the North Calder, and on the south, by the South Calder and the river Clyde. It is comprehended by the elevated ground running along the north-eastern bank of the Clyde from Lanark to near Glasgow, which range, however, recedes from the river in traversing this district, and leaves an intermediate plain, till it again inclines to the stream in the neighbourhood of Bothwell-Bridge. Near this it forms a piece of table-land of about one mile in extent, running to the westward, at the head of which are situated the church and village, about 120 feet above the level of the sea, and commanding a beautiful view, to the east, of the vale of Clyde. From the eastern boundary of the parish, the land falls rapidly to a distance of nearly four miles, after which a flat succeeds, of about equal length, declining southward towards the Calder and Clyde, and the western extremity of this tract sinks gradually into the extensive plain on which Glasgow is situated. The Clyde, the chief river, enters the parish at Bothwell-Haugh, and forms a majestic stream, the banks of which are famed for their diversified and picturesque scenery; it is 120 yards broad at Blantyre-Works, but at Bothwell-Bridge contracts itself to a span of 71 yards. The North and South Calder, after running separately for about 15 miles, form each a confluence with the Clyde; they flow between banks of sandstone rock, beautifully abrupt in many parts, and affording well-wooded and romantic scenery. Of these rivers, the Clyde, once so celebrated for the abundance of its salmon, has now greatly fallen off in this respect, very few fish comparatively visiting it, owing to many causes, one of the most considerable of which is said to be the impediment presented to their progress by the dam thrown over the river between Blantyre Mill and Bothwell.

The prevailing soil is clay, resting upon a tilly subsoil, and is frequently, and in various proportions, mixed with loam and sand; in some places it consists of fine light mould, and in the vicinity of the rivers is a fertile alluvial deposit. The whole land is productive, with small exceptions of moss and moor; two-fifths are in pasture, and grain of all kinds, and of good quality, is raised; potatoes, turnips, peas, &c., are also cultivated in considerable quantities, with some flax, though this last is not grown so largely as formerly. Very great attention is given to dairy-farming, there being no less than 1000 cows kept, most of which are native varieties of the Ayrshire breed; the horses are in general likewise of a good stock. The rateable annual value of the parish is £35,207. The predominating rock is the red sandstone, which lies over the whole coal-bed in this district, at a distance of twenty or thirty fathoms above the coal; it is bright in colour, and, though sometimes soft and friable, generally well adapted to buildings. There are several quarries of good freestone near the Clyde, of a red colour; and in the upper parts of the parish, white freestone is found. Coal abounds in every direction, and four large seams, from which it is chiefly procured, extend throughout the parish, in which the Ell-coal, Pyotshaw, main, and splint coal succeed each other, the last being best suited for the smelting of iron; the average amount of coal obtained, in value, is estimated at £80,000 annually, and of iron-stone and other minerals, £20,000.

The chief mansion is Bothwell Castle, a simple, yet commodious residence, built of the same red sandstone as the old castle, and consisting of an extensive front and two wings; the apartments are ornamented with several excellent portraits. The grounds are elegantly laid out, and the neighbouring scenery, comprising the waters of the Clyde and its picturesque banks, is ennobled by the ancient and venerable ruin of the old castle. The mansion of Woodhall, on the bank of the North Calder, is a spacious building in the style of the age of Louis XIV.; valuable pictures adorn some of the apartments, and the entrance-hall contains several French cuirasses and helmets of brass, brought from the field of Waterloo. The mansions of Cairnbroe and St. Enoch's Hall, both on the North Calder; Cleland, Carfin, Jerviston, and Douglas Park, are all superior residences, standing in the midst of interesting scenery; and Bothwell Park, a handsome commanding mansion, has a fine view of the fertile haughs of Hamilton, and of the vale of Clyde. The principal manufactures of the parish are those of pig-iron and steel, the former of which is produced at the Monkland Company's works at Chapelhall, to a great extent; about 100 tons of steel are manufactured annually, 30 tons of which are made into files, and upwards of 700 persons are employed at the works. Other similar works are carried on in the parish, of less importance. Post-offices are established at Bothwell, Bellshill, and Holytown, and the Glasgow and Edinburgh coaches, and the Hamilton, Lanark, and Strathaven coaches, pass through the parish; the Glasgow and Carlisle mail traverses the same road, and the Wishaw and Coltness railroad intersects the parish, and affords great facilities.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the stipend of the minister is £282. 14. 8., with a good manse, and a glebe valued at £36 per annum; patron, the Duke of Hamilton. The church, which is a superior building, in the pointed style of architecture, opened in 1833, extends 72 feet by 45, and contains 1200 sittings; the cost of the building was £4200, and it has a good bell, provided by the parish, at an expense of £150, and a clock which cost £133, raised by voluntary subscription. A church has been erected at Holytown, late a quoad sacra parish; and there is a Relief meetinghouse at Bellshill; also a meeting-house at Newarthill, belonging to the United Secession. The members of the Free Church have likewise a place of worship. Three parochial schools are supported, situated respectively at Bothwell, Holytown, and Newarthill, the master of the first of which has a house, and a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £70 fees; the others have £8. 11. each: the classics, mathematics, and all the usual branches of education are taught. The chief relic of antiquity in the parish is the magnificent ruin of the ancient castle, situated near the modern castle, on the summit of a verdant slope, in the midst of beautiful woods and pleasure grounds. The old church, which was originally the choir of the collegiate church (the most famous of the five collegiate churches in Lanarkshire), is a very fine specimen of ancient architecture; it was built about 1398, and disused as a church in 1828. Bothwell bridge is of great antiquity, though the age is not precisely known; it originally consisted of four arches, each spanning 45 feet, and measuring 15 feet in breadth, but it has been considerably enlarged, within these few years, by which an additional width of road is obtained. There is another bridge, supposed to be of Roman construction, across the South Calder, consisting of one arch of semicircular form, high and narrow, without parapets; it is supposed to have been on the line of the great Roman Watling-street, which ran through this part of the country, on the north-east bank of the Clyde. Chalybeate springs are very numerous in the district, and many of them are strongly sulphuretted. The celebrated Joanna Baillie was born in the manse, during the incumbency of her father, the Rev. James Baillie.

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Bothwell Castle

Cadder

CADDER, or CALDER, a parish, in the Lower ward of the county of Lanark, 3 miles (W. by S.) from Kirkintilloch; containing, with the village of Auchinearn, the hamlet of Bishopbridge, and the late quoad sacra district of Chryston, 4425 inhabitants. This place derives its name from its situation in the midst of a district abounding with wood and water, of which its appellation in the old British language, Calder, is significant. It appears to have owed its origin, as a parish, to the foundation of a church by St. Patrick, who was born in the immediate vicinity, and who, towards the close of the 5th century, founded numerous other churches in the neighbourhood, which were subsequently endowed by Convallus II., with lands for the maintenance of their respective clergy. The parish is about fourteen miles in length, and four in breadth, and the surface, which is generally undulated, is diversified with lakes, and by various tributary streams, which fall into the river Kelvin, the parish boundary on the north and west. Of the former, the most important were, Auchinloch, nearly in the centre of the parish, from which, on its being drained some years since, a stream was conducted to the Kelvin; Loch Grog, drained in 1844; and Robroyston loch, in the western part, now almost reclaimed into arable land. Johnston loch, in the eastern part, is about a mile in circumference, and is employed by the Forth and Clyde Company, as a reservoir for supplying their canal, for which purpose, also, they have appropriated the Bishop's loch, of which a small portion is within this parish.

The soil is extremely various; in some parts, a rich black loam; in others, mossy; on the banks of the various streams, chiefly alluvial; and in some parts, sandy. Several of the mosses, all of which abound with peat, have been reclaimed, affording excellent crops. About 9000 acres of land are in cultivation, about 300 deep moss, and there are something more than 500 acres in plantations, of which the principal, on the Cadder estate, contains many trees of ancient and luxuriant growth: there are several extensive dairy-farms, mostly stocked with cows of the Ayrshire breed. The crops are, oats, wheat, potatoes, barley, rye, and turnips, in the production of which the improved system of agriculture is adopted. The rateable annual value of the parish is £21,941. The substratum is chiefly whinstone, many seams of which, in different parts, rise above the surface; freestone is also found in abundance, alternating with the whinstone, and large quantities of it are sent to Glasgow. Limestone is prevalent; and coal exists in the parish, at a considerable depth, but the quality is not sufficiently good to remunerate the labour of working it. There are some extensive tracts of clay, used for pottery and bricks; of the former, various elegant specimens of vases have been produced, and fire-bricks and crucibles of excellent quality are made of the latter. Ironstone abounds, and is wrought to a considerable extent by the Carron Company. The Forth and Clyde canal intersects the western portion of the parish, passing in a line nearly parallel with the river Kelvin; the Kirkintilloch railway, opened in 1826, crosses its eastern extremity, and the Garnkirk and Glasgow railway, opened in 1831, passes on the south side, for several miles. In 1842, the line of the Edinburgh and Glasgow railway was carried through the parish. The village, formerly extensive, contains at present only sixty-four inhabitants, employed on the lands of its proprietor, whose mansion, recently enlarged, forms the principal object of interest in the place.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage is in the heritors and Kirk Session, and the stipend of the incumbent is £280.8., with a manse, and a glebe of about ten acres. The church, erected in 1830, is a neat edifice of stone, in the early English style, with a square tower, and is adapted for a congregation of about 800 persons. There are three parochial schools, situated respectively at Cadder, Chryston, and Auchinearn; the master in Cadder has a salary of £25. 13., and the fees amount to more than a sum of £55; the master at Chryston has £17. 2., with £56 fees, and the master of Auchinearn has £8. 10., with £12 fees, and the interest of 1000 merks bequeathed by the Rev. James Warden. Another school, in the village of Auchinloch, is endowed with £300, bequeathed by Patrick Baird, Esq. There are some remains of the ancient Roman wall, near the glebe. In 1813, a gold coin of Antoninus Pius was discovered, in a very perfect state, in clearing out the pond of Cadder; and in levelling the lawn before the house, the foundations of the old tower appeared, in which was found a vessel containing more than 300 gold coins, of the size of a shilling, with the inscription Jacobus.

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Cambuslang

CAMBUSLANG, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 4½ miles (S. by E.) from Glasgow; including the villages of Bushyhill, Chapelton, East and West Cotes, Cullochburn, Howieshill, Kirkhill, Lightburn, Sauchiebog, Silverbanks, and Vicarland; and containing 3022 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its name from its situation on the banks of the Clyde, which in this part of its course, winding round the northern part of the parish, separates it from Old Monkland. The barony in which the greater portion is included, and which was anciently called Drumsargart, belonged, in the reign of Alexander II., to Walter Olifard, justiciary of Lothian, and subsequently became the property of the Morays, of Bothwell. The castle and barony afterwards passed into the possession of the Earl of Douglas, who had married the daughter of Sir Thomas Moray, and remained in that family till 1452, when it was transferred to James, Lord Hamilton, in the possession of whose descendants it still continues, though its name was, during the 17th century, changed from Drumsargart to Cambuslang, the name of the parish. There are no other remains of the ancient castle of Drumsargart, than the mere site, from which it is supposed to have derived its name, significant of its situation on a circular mount, at the extremity of a long ridge of ground about thirty feet above the surface of the surrounding plain. The Parish is bounded on the east by the river Calder, which is a tributary of the Clyde; and comprises 3507 acres, all arable and pasture land, with the exception of about 200 in plantations, roads, and waste. The surface, though generally level, is varied with rising grounds and ridges, of which the principal are Turnlaw and Dechmont, in the south-west; the latter, having an elevation of 600 feet above the sea, commands an extensive prospect, comprehending the Tweeddale and Pentland hills, Ben-Lomond, and several of the hills of Cowal and Breadalbane. The adjacent scenery is beautifully picturesque, embracing the windings of the Clyde, in its course from Lanark to Dumbarton, with its richly-wooded banks, interspersed with villages and gentlemen's seats, the plantations of Hamilton, the romantic ruins of Bothwell Castle, and the cathedral and city of Glasgow, which are here seen with peculiar and striking effect. The Clyde is about 250 feet in breadth; and the Calder, of which the banks are ornamented with pleasing villas, and finely wooded, is about forty feet wide.

The soil is generally good, and, in the low lands near the Clyde, extremely rich and fertile. The principal crops are oats and wheat, of which latter the cultivation has been, for sometime, progressively increasing, under an improved system of agriculture; peas, beans, and potatoes are also raised in considerable quantities, and a small proportion of barley. There are several large dairy-farms, the produce of which is chiefly butter, of excellent quality, sent to the Glasgow market, where it finds a ready sale; the cows are the Ayrshire. The rateable annual value of the parish is £11,555. The substratum is mainly argillaceous freestone, lime and ironstone, and coal, all of which are wrought, affording employment to many of the population. The freestone is of good quality, and much esteemed for ornamental building; and the limestone, which is peculiarly compact, and susceptible of a high polish, is, under the appellation of Cambuslang marble, wrought into mantel-pieces of great beauty. The ironstone is found in several places, but is worked only to a very limited extent. The coal lies at various depths, and in some few places rises nearly to the surface; the field in which it is found forms part of the coal district of the Clyde, and the seams vary from three to five feet in thickness; the mines in this parish are the property of the Duke of Hamilton, and are partly held on lease. The weaving of muslin for the Glasgow manufacturers, formerly carried on to a much greater extent, at present affords employment to about 500 persons; and there are corn-mills on the Clyde and Calder. The principal seats are, Newton, a handsome modern mansion; Calder Grove, also recently erected; and Gilbertfield, an ancient turreted edifice. The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; patron, the Duke of Hamilton; the minister's stipend is £281. 11. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £10 per annum. The church, erected in 1743, a plain building, being much dilapidated, has been rebuilt on a larger scale, for a congregation of 1000 persons; it is a handsome structure in the Norman style, with a lofty spire. There are places of worship for members of the Congregational Union, and the United Secession Church. The parochial school affords education to nearly 100 pupils: the salary of the master is £34, with £40 fees, and a good house and garden. On the summit of Dechmont Hill, the foundations of ancient buildings have been discovered; and within the last fifty years, considerable remains existed, but they have been removed, for the sake of the materials, which have been employed in repairing the roads, and for other purposes. Among them were the remains of a circular building, about 24 feet in diameter, of which the site is supposed to have been occupied anciently as a signal station, and is a place of security in case of irruption from an enemy. At Kirkburn, was formerly a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, which appears to have subsisted till the Reformation; but the only memorial preserved of the building, is the name of the land on which it stood, still called Chapelton. Spittal Hill was the site of an hospital which has long since disappeared. Dr. Claudius Buchanan, author of Researches in India, was a native of the parish.

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Cambuslang Institute

Cambusnethan

CAMBUSNETHAN, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Bonkle, Stane, and Stewarton and Wishawton; the whole containing 5796 inhabitants, of whom 485 are in the village of Cambusnethan-Kirk, 4½ miles (N. W.) from Carluke. The name is derived from the Gaelic word Camus, signifying a "bay" or "curve," applicable to the remarkable windings of the river Clyde; and from Nethan, the name of the celebrated saint whom Archbishop Usher styles "religiosissimus et doctissimus Nethan," and to whom the church was dedicated. The history of the place is chiefly connected with the families of Stewart, Sommerville, Hamilton, and Lockhart, all of whom have been long located here, as large landed proprietors; the most remote occupation of the soil, however, of which we have any account, was by a family of the name of Baird, to whom the valuable barony of Cambusnethan belonged, at a very early period. The parish is about twelve miles long, from east to west, and a little more than four miles broad, and contains 26,000 acres. The surface is tolerably level in the western extremity, near the banks of the Clyde, but gradually rises eastward to about 120 feet, forming a tract about a mile in breadth, consisting of a rich and fertile soil, which is well cultivated, and celebrated for the number and quality of its hares. Another acclivity succeeds this, rising to a height of about 250 feet, the larger part of which is covered with orchards; and still further to the east, the lands, in many parts, rise to an elevation of 900 feet, and command some very extensive views of the surrounding country. The castle of Edinburgh, Loudon-hill, Dumbarton Castle, and the hills of Argyllshire may be distinctly seen from Knownowton; and from the church, the prospect embraces the cathedral of Glasgow, with at least fifteen country churches. Besides the Clyde, there are several streams running through the parish and upon its boundaries, the peculiar character and flexures of which greatly improve its interesting scenery. The South Calder, rising in Linlithgowshire, forms about nine miles of the boundary line between this parish and Shotts; and for some miles before its approach to the Clyde, into which it falls, its banks are steep, exhibiting specimens of highly ornamental scenery, and adorned with several beautiful varieties of wood and garden. The Water of Auchter, which rises in the parish of Carluke, after flowing for more than a mile, on the boundary of that parish and Cambusnethan, enters the latter, and, passing for about three miles in a meandering route, falls into the South Calder at Bridgend. Of these rivers, the Clyde is said to contain twelve different species of fish; the chief is the salmon, which latterly has been abundant.

The prevailing soil is clayey, resting upon a stiff and tenacious subsoil of till; in the more elevated parts, it is much mixed with gravel and dark sand, and in the vicinity of the Clyde, the haughs are a moist alluvial compost, yielding, when well cultivated, fine crops. About 10,000 acres are cultivated, or occasionally in tillage; about 6000 are in woods, roads, quarries, &c.; 160 acres in orchards, and a very considerable quantity waste. Good grain of all kinds is raised, and fruit forms a prominent article in the produce; numerous improvements have been made in agriculture within the last few years, especially in draining, which is required to a large extent, on account of the wet clayey nature of the soil. Thriving hedges and plantations have also been raised in many parts; and dells and ravines, formerly the beds of broom, furze, and heath, have been planted with larch, or formed into orchards. The rateable annual value of the parish is £32,016. The subterraneous productions are chiefly iron-stone and coal, which may be procured in very large quantities; the district is included in the great coal-field of Lanarkshire, and the coal is extensively wrought. In the neighbourhood of Headlecross, in the eastern part of the parish, and on the grounds of Coltness and Allanton, the blackband iron-stone is found of superior quality, and, in various places, good sandstone is met with; in several directions, also, plentiful supplies are obtained of excellent clay, about ten feet in thickness, and used for the manufacture of drain and roof tiles.

Among the principal seats is Cambusnethan House, an elegant structure on the model of a priory, erected about twenty years ago, upon the site of a mansion which had been accidentally destroyed by fire; it stands in a romantic situation, and the grounds have been much improved, within the last few years, especially the orchards. Wishaw House, in the north-west corner of the parish, upon the bank of the Calder, is an extensive structure in the castellated style; the front is noble and commanding, varied by a number of different-sized and well-proportioned towers. The apartments are enriched by several portraits, among which are, one of John, Lord Belhaven, who so zealously opposed the Union; and a very costly portrait, by Vandyke, of Sir James Balfour, Lord Lyon, king-of-arms in the reign of Charles I. The House of Coltness is an elegant and commodious building, between the dining and drawing room of which, runs a gallery nearly 200 feet long, hung round with ancient portraits of the family of Stewart; it stands in the midst of very extensive and well laid-out grounds. Allanton House is a majestic structure, wrought up, by various additions and improvements, from the old castle of Allanton; it is ornamented with an artificial lake of large dimensions, and containing several islands, so covered with wood that, from no part of it, is its extent capable of being seen. Muirhouse is also an old structure, in a commanding situation.

The population are employed partly in manufactures; two tile-works are in operation upon the estate of Wishaw, and one at Coltness. The Shotts iron-works, on the borders of the parish, have caused an increase of population, to the amount of about 2000, one-third of whom reside at the village of Stane, and the rest in Shotts; and near Wishawton, in the westerly quarter of the parish, a very extensive distillery has lately been erected, by Lord Belhaven. A road from Edinburgh to Ayr traverses the parish. The monks of Kelso anciently held the tithes and other ecclesiastical rights of Cambusnethan, by grant, in the twelfth century, from William Finemund, lord of the manor; in the following century the church was transferred to the bishops of Glasgow, with whom it continued till the Reformation. The ecclesiastical affairs are now subject to the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; there is a manse, with a glebe of four acres, and the stipend is £278. 15. 1.; patron, Robert Lockhart, Esq. The church is a plain and uncomfortable building, erected in 1640, in lieu of a more ancient edifice, part of which is still standing: a third church, to supersede the present, was begun in June, 1839, and is a handsome edifice with a tower, but not yet completed or opened for public worship. There are places of worship for the Relief body, Reformed Presbyterians, and members of the United Secession; also a parochial school, at which are taught all the usual branches of education, the master receiving the maximum salary, and about £20 fees. Two subscription libraries are supported, the books in which are chiefly historical and religious.

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Cambusnethan Castle

Carluke

CARLUKE, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Braidwood, Kilcadzow, and Yieldshields; and containing 4802 inhabitants, of whom 2090 are in the village of Carluke, 5 miles (N. N. W.) from Lanark. The name appears to have been derived from the word Caer, signifying " a hill," and Luac, "Luke," in reference to the dedication of the church, and to the elevated site of the parish. The first historical traces of the district are connected with the reign of David I., when the founder of the Lockhart family, whose descendant is still the principal heritor, came into Scotland with some other Norman families, and settled here. The lands of Kirkton, in the parish, anciently belonged to the abbey of Kelso, and were erected into a barony in 1662, by Charles II., in favour of Walter Lockhart, a cadet of the family of Wicketshaw, at that time the proprietors. By a charter of Robert I., that monarch granted to the monks of Lesmahago ten merks yearly from the revenue of his mills at Mauldslie, in Carluke, for supporting the expense of lights at the tomb of St. Macute; and in a subsequent charter of the 8th of March, 1315, ten merks yearly were bestowed upon the same monks, from the mills, to supply eight wax lights for the tomb on Sundays and festivals. In this reign, also, the church, with all its rights, was given by the king to the monks of Kelso, who performed its duties by a curate, and continued in the possession of its revenues till the Reformation.

The parish is about eight miles long, from east to west, and about four and a half broad, containing 15,360 acres; it is bounded on the south-west by the Clyde, and on the west by Garrion Gill. The surface is considerably diversified, consisting of level ground, acclivities, hills, and valleys, clothed in many parts with luxuriant pasture, and ornamented with picturesque scenery, interspersed with numerous neat and comfortable cottages, and elegant mansions, and enlivened and irrigated by the beautiful meanderings of the Clyde. Close to this river is a long narrow tract of sloping ground of rich quality, after which the land rises in an easterly direction, 400 or 500 feet above the sea. From the highest point of this land, along which runs a ridge of sandstone, a level is continued as far as the village, terminating in an extensive hill called the Law of Mauldslie; and at the back of the village, the surface again rises towards the east, and terminates in a wild moor. The principal hills are, Kilcadzow, Lee, King's, and Mauldslie, the last of which is the most lofty, rising upwards of 800 feet above the level of the sea. The most interesting view of the district is from the Lanark and Glasgow road, on the opposite side of the Clyde, from which point are seen the banks of the river, adorned with fruit and forest trees, and the numerous rills issuing from the concealed and romantic glens and ravines, and eventually falling into the Clyde.

In the neighbourhood of the river, the soil is a rich loam; generally, it is various; in some parts, light and sandy, and famed for its large crops of apples and pears. The whole rests on a subsoil of clay, of widely different appearance and quality; grain to a large amount is produced, and potatoes, turnips, and hay are likewise raised. The system of husbandry here followed, on account of the peculiar character of the soil and other circumstances, is somewhat different from that generally used in other districts. The rotation of crops is not much approved; the course preferred, except upon the rich tracts near the Clyde, is to convert the land into permanent pasture, breaking it up only every fifth or sixth year for a crop of oats. The rateable annual value of the parish is £13,437. The rocks consist of limestone, sandstone, and ironstone, which, with various kinds of coal and clay, are found in large quantities; the limestone, with one exception, all lies under the coal, which latter is quarried to a very great extent, and is of excellent quality. Between the coal and limestone, the beds of sandstone occur, which, with numerous layers of freestone, supply the best materials for building; a ridge of trap runs eastward, from Hillhead to Bashaw, and quartz and agate are both found in the old red sandstone. One of the chief mansions is Mauldslie Castle, built in 1793, by the Earl of Hyndford, an elegant structure, ornamented with turrets, and situated in a well-wooded park, through which the Clyde flows for about a mile. The mansion of Milton-Lockhart, lately built, stands upon a point of land projecting into the valley of the Clyde, and beautifully skirted with deep glens and thick woods; the proprietor has built a bridge of three arches over the river, after the model of Bothwell bridge. Braidwood House stands on an eminence above the same vale, and is a handsome and commodious structure. Carluke was erected in 1662 into a burgh of barony, under the name of Kirkstyle, with the privilege of holding a weekly market, and a fair twice in the year; a tax of sixpence in the pound, on house-rent, is levied for the support of constables, and for cleaning and lighting the streets. The population of the town, a few years ago, was insignificant; but there is now a variety of good shops, and a post-office has been established under Lanark. The inhabitants of the parish are chiefly employed in agriculture, and in quarrying freestone, limestone, ironstone, and coal: fairs are held, one on the 21st May, and another on the 31st October, at which there is a very considerable traffic in milch cows. The Stirling and Carlisle turnpike-road, and the road between Glasgow and Carnwath, run through the parish.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage is exercised by Sir N. M. Lockhart, Bart., and the minister's stipend is £262, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30 per annum. The church, which is a substantial building, containing 1000 sittings, was built in 1799, at an expense of £1000. There are places of worship for members of the Relief and Associate Synods; also a parochial school, in which Latin is taught, with all the usual branches of education, and the master of which has a salary of £34, and £50 fees, with a house and garden. A parochial library was founded in 1827, and a society for the promotion of useful knowledge in 1836; there is also an agricultural society, instituted in 1833, for the purpose of encouraging improvements in the breed of cattle. The great Roman road, through Clydesdale, to the wall of Antoninus, passed through the parish; not far from it, at Cairney Mount and at Law, several coffins have been found, constructed of large stones, and containing urns and ashes. Flint arrow-heads, hatchets, and numerous coins, both silver and gold, of Roman origin, have been also found, at Burnhead and Castlehill. In a dell in the parish, is a very ancient tower called Hallbar, fifty-two feet high, and twenty-four feet square on the outside, having a vault beneath, and three apartments, the uppermost of which has an arched roof; it is supposed, from mention of it in a deed dated 1685, to have been attached to the barony of Braidwood. At Hang-hill, near Mauldslie Castle, is an old burial-ground of several acres in extent, covered with large trees sixty or seventy feet high, and in which the two last earls of Hyndford were interred. On the estate of Milton-Lockhart, part of an ancient fort still remains, in which the celebrated William Wallace once found refuge from the pursuit of his enemies. Major-General Roy, the celebrated engineer, and author of a standard work on Roman Antiquities, was a native of Carluke.

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Carluke Parish Church

Carmichael

CARMICHAEL, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 5 miles (S. E.) from Lanark, containing 874 inhabitants. This place derives its name from St. Michael, to whom its first church was dedicated. The remains of antiquity of which historical use can be made, are very few; in the south-west corner of the parish are vestiges of a camp and military station, and a few years ago, a large coffin constructed of sandstone was found, but destitute of any mark to guide opinion as to its probable origin. On the summit of the lofty mountain of Tinto, is a cairn or heap of stones; and in some parts, are stone crosses, all of which point out the places of military occupation and engagement, concerning the particular facts of which nothing determinate is on record. The ancient and illustrious family of Carmichael occupy the most prominent place in the civil history of the parish: one of its members, John, second Lord Carmichael, born in 1672, was created Earl of Hyndford in 1701, and filled a succession of honourable and important offices to the time of his death, which took place on his estate here.

The length of the Parish, from south-west to north-east, is six miles, and its extreme breadth nearly five miles; it contains about 11,630 imperial acres, and is bounded on the north by the Clyde river, from its confluence with Douglas water to Mill-hill, and intersected by the roads from Carlisle to Stirling, and Edinburgh to Ayr. The surface presents numerous irregularities, consisting of hill and valley, breaks, and sweeping undulations, crowned, in the south-eastern part, by the lofty and celebrated mountain of Tinto, which rises to an elevation of about 2400 feet. This majestic hill, the name of which is said to signify "the hill of fire," from the fires formerly kindled upon it, commands an interesting and extensive view of the lower elevations of Carmichael, Drumalbin, Whitecastle, Crossridge, and Stonehill hills, all in the parish, the ground gradually sinking to the northern extremity. The climate is cold; and the surface is covered, in many parts, with poor pasture, and only in the highly cultivated grounds has an agreeable aspect. The Soil, in the vicinity of the Clyde, is thin and sandy; in other parts, a good deep loam, but in the arable districts, generally damp and clayey, resting upon an impervious till or ferruginous clay, with a considerable mixture of marine stones. The number of acres (Scotch) under cultivation is, 4702 arable, and 3815 pasture; 735 acres are plantations, which consist of oak, ash, elm, plane, beech, alder, poplar, birch, and horse-chesnut. The crops generally raised are, oats, barley, bear, peas, potatoes, turnips, rye-grass, and meadow hay, the first of which greatly predominates; the cattle are of the Ayrshire breed, and the sheep are the black-faced, with a few Cheviots. The system of agriculture is excellent, and numerous improvements have been introduced of late years; the rateable annual value of the parish is £5280.

The prevailing rock is the old red sandstone, which is good for building houses or fences, and is abundant in the hills of Carmichael, Whitecastle, and Drumalbin; felspar porphyry, in some places, lies near the sandstone, and in the Crossridge hill is a stratum of clayslate, passing into greywacke slate. Blocks of quartz are sometimes seen, exposed by the action of the streams; and blocks of gneiss have been found, deposited in alluvial soil, whither it is supposed they had been carried by the violence of the rivers. There are quarries of limestone and sandstone. Carmichael House, an ancient and magnificent baronial residence, for many generations the seat of the family of the same name, is encompassed by aged and lofty trees, and extensive grounds and plantations, which were greatly improved by John, Earl of Hyndford. The mansion of Eastend, comparatively a modern structure, is elegant and commodious. There is a tan-work in the parish, in a prosperous state; also an establishment for the carrying of leather, which is carried on with considerable profit. At Carmichael Mill, is a foundry, which supplies most of the iron-work for threshing-mills and other machinery used in the parish; and there are thirty hands employed as weavers. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the direction of the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage is exercised by Sir W. Carmichael Anstruther, Bart., and the minister's stipend is £225. The church, a cruciform building, erected in 1750, is in good repair, and accommodates between 400 and 500 persons; the manse was built at the same time, and considerably enlarged some years ago, and is supplied with a glebe valued at £20 per annum. There is a parochial school, in which are taught the classics, French, and mathematics, with all the usual branches of education; the salary is £32, with more than the legal accommodations, and fees of about £26. 8. Another school, at Ponfeigh, is supported partly by the heritors; and there is a savings'-bank, established in 1814.

Carmichael House.jpg

Carmichael House

Carmunnock

CARMUNNOCK, a parish, in the Lower ward of the county of Lanark; containing 717 inhabitants, of whom 390 are in the village, 5 miles (S.) from Glasgow. The name of this place is supposed to have been derived from the compound Gaelic word Caer-mannock, signifying "the monk's fort." The remains of antiquity here bear testimony to the settlement and military operations of the Romans; vestiges of a military road and camp, are still to be seen on the estate of Castlemilk, and pieces of ancient armour, with a variety of utensils, have been found. In the reign of William the Lion, the manor was held by Henry, son of Anselm, who assumed the name of Henry of "Cormanock." Some time before the year 1189, he granted the church to the monks of Paisley, with half a carucate of land, and a right of common, and directed that his remains, and those of his wife, should be interred in the monastery. The church was held by the monks till the Reformation. The Parish is about four miles long, from north-east to south-west, and averages about two and a half in breadth; it contains 2810 Scotch acres, of which 2400 are arable, and under a regular system of cultivation, 250 wood, and 106 pasture, the remainder being roads, &c. The surface is considerably elevated, and exhibits a succession of hill and dale, varied with extensive and flourishing plantations, and enlivened by the beautiful meanderings of the river Cart, on the western boundary of the parish, which here borders on Renfrewshire. From the summit of Cathkin-hill, near the eastern boundary, at an elevation of nearly 500 feet above the sea, the prospect embraces parts of sixteen counties, the nearer group consisting of the city of Glasgow, with its surrounding villages, the towns of Rutherglen and Paisley, and the vale of Clyde, from Hamilton to Dumbarton. The parish abounds with springs, and there are five public wells of good water; but the only river running through it is a small stream called the Kittoch.
 

The soil, which is generally uniform, consists of good earth, about six or seven inches deep, and resting upon a superior whinstone rock, which extends throughout the parish. In some spots, it is more moist and clayey, with a retentive bottom, yet yielding excellent crops when well drained and manured; in a few places, it is considerably mixed with sand, and too much impoverished to be applied to any use but that of common pasture. Crops of all kinds are raised, and, on account of the highly cultivated state of the soil, are of the highest order; and the greatest encouragement is given to dairy-farming, both for the superior profit it brings to the tenant, and for the manure. The cows are all of the Ayrshire breed; many improvements have taken place in agriculture within the last few years, and furrow-draining with tiles has been extensively practised. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5511. There is a considerable quarry of freestone, of good quality; and on the estate of Castlemilk, excellent limestone and ironstone are found, the latter of which has been partially wrought. The village population are chiefly hand-loom weavers; seven annual fairs are held, some of which are for the sale of horses and cows. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; patron, J. S. S. Stuart, Esq. An excellent manse has been lately built, to which there is a glebe valued at £19 per annum; and the stipend is £152. 17. 6., of which £39. 10. 10. are received from the exchequer. The church, which is situated in the middle of the village, was built in 1767, and repaired in 1838; it is a neat and convenient structure, and seats about 450 persons. There is a dissenters' place of worship; also a parochial school, in which the usual branches of a plain education are taught, and the master of which has the maximum salary, and about £32 fees, with a house and garden. An old thorn-tree here, is much regarded, as marking out the spot from which Mary, Queen of Scots, was a spectator of the defeat of her army at the battle of Langside.

Carnwath

CARNWATH, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Braehead, Forth, Newbigging, and Wilsontown; and containing 3550 inhabitants, of whom 766 are in the village of Carnwath, 25 miles (S. W.) from Edinburgh. This place is supposed to have derived its name from an ancient cairn, to the west of the present village, and near a ford (wath in Saxon) across the burn, now called Carnwath, which, previously to the construction of the bridges, was passable only here. The castle of Cowthalley, in the parish, was, for many years, the baronial residence of the Sommervilles, one of the most opulent and powerful families of the country in the 12th century, and of whom William, the first baron, was the firm adherent of Robert Bruce, during the disputed succession to the crown. It was burnt in one of those inroads of the English which so frequently occurred; but at what time, or by whom, it was rebuilt, is not distinctly recorded. This castle was often the temporary residence of James VI., while pursuing the diversion of hunting, for which the neighbourhood was peculiarly favourable; but the foundations only can now be traced, from which it appears to have been a fortress of considerable extent, surrounded by a deep fosse, and accessible by a drawbridge on the western side.

The parish is about twelve miles in length, from north to south, and about eight miles in breadth, and comprises 25,193 Scotch acres, of which 8500 are arable, 12,000 pasture and waste, 400 natural woods and plantations, and 70 undivided common. The surface is varied, consisting partly of level, and partly of rising grounds, the former having an elevation of 600, and the latter of 1200, feet above the sea, at the highest point; but there are no mountains or detached hills in any part. The principal rivers are the Clyde and the Medwin, which form part of the southern boundary; there are numerous springs of excellent water, affording an abundant supply, and also some possessing mineral properties, but they have not attracted much notice. The only lake of any consideration, is Whiteloch, to the west of the village; it covers about thirty acres of ground, and is of great depth in some parts; the shores on the south and west are richly wooded and the surrounding scenery is diversified. The soil, in one part of the parish, is a strong wet clay; in another, a deep rich loam; and in other parts, light and gravelly, intermixed with portions of moss. The chief crops are, barley, oats, a little wheat, potatoes, and turnips; the rotation system of husbandry is practised, and bone-dust has been extensively introduced as manure, and with much success. Great attention is paid to the management of the dairy, on most of the farms, under the encouragement of the Highland Society of the district; the cheese made is mostly of the Dunlop kind, and the greater part is sent to Edinburgh. The cattle are of the Ayrshire breed; there are but comparatively few sheep, and these are of almost every variety. The rateable annual value of the parish is £14,207.

The substrata are principally coal, ironstone, and limestone, all of which are extensively wrought. The coal and limestone are found in superincumbent strata, on the lands north of the rivulet of Dippool; the limestone occurs at a depth of nearly thirty feet from the surface, in seams of about six feet thick, and the coal, under it, in seams of about eighteen inches, wrought for burning the lime. On the other side of the Cleugh burn, is a very extensive coalfield, reaching to the northern boundary of the parish, and containing an inexhaustible mine, which, till within the last fifty years, had been only partially explored; but, on the establishment of a company here, for the manufacture of iron, a steam-engine was erected for drawing off the water, and mining operations were conducted on a very extended scale. To the west of this district, at Climpy, is another field of coal, which has also been worked by the company. The ironstone is found in strata of various thickness and quality; in some parts occurring in the form of tessellated pavement, and in others, in small detached masses. The village of Carnwath, in the southern part of the parish, is neatly built, and contains several regular streets, and many handsome houses, especially those of more recent erection; most of the old houses have also been much improved in appearance, and the whole has an air of great cheerfulness and comfort. It is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in weaving, for the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley. A public library is supported by subscription; a weekly market is held, mostly for the sale of meal and barley, and there are fairs in July, for cows and horses, and for hiring servants; in the middle of August, for lambs and young horses; and in October, and also in February, principally for the hiring of farm-servants. On the day after the August fair, a foot-race and various other sports are celebrated.

The parish is in the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the minister's stipend is £250. 17.6., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum. The church, erected in 1798, and thoroughly repaired in 1833, is a plain neat edifice, adapted for a congregation of about 1100 persons, but almost inaccessible to a great portion of the population. Chapels in connexion with the Established Church have been built at Wilsontown and Climpy; but the latter is fast falling into a state of dilapidation. There is a place of worship for members of the New Light Burghers congregation, on the road to Wilsontown; and the parish also contains a place of worship in connexion with the Free Church. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £34, with £34 fees, and a house and garden. The ancient cairn from which the parish takes its name is of elliptical form, and on the summit is an opening, from which was a descent, by a flight of steps, to the bottom; it is surrounded by a deep fosse and high mound, and is supposed to have been formed as a place of security in time of war, and for concealment of treasure. Sir N. M. Lockhart has planted it with hard-wood trees. Among the few other remains of antiquity in the parish, is the beautiful aisle of the old church, which was founded in 1386, and endowed, and made collegiate for a principal and six prebendaries, in 1424, by Lord Sommerville, who also connected with it a provision for the maintenance of eight poor aged men. This aisle, which is in good preservation, and displays some interesting details in the decorated English style, has been the sepulchral chapel of the Sommerville and Dalziel families, and of the earls of Carnwath, and is now the burying-place of the family of Lockhart.

St Marys, Carnwath

St Marys Parish Church, Carnwath

Carstairs

CARSTAIRS, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the village of Ravenstruther, and containing 950 inhabitants, of whom 350 are in the village of Carstairs, 4½ miles (E. by S.) from Lanark. The name is most probably derived from the word Car, or Caer, signifying "a fort," and stair, or stairs, "a possession;" descriptive of an estate or possession in a fortified place. The ancient occupation of the district by the Romans, is evinced by many remains of antiquity, such as coins, baths, &c., but chiefly by the military station called Castle-dykes, and a Roman camp on the farm of Corbie Hall. The former of these is situated on the right bank of the Clyde, the southern boundary of the parish; and from it a road ran across Clydesdale, passing the Clyde near Lanark, and running over Stonebyre hill, after which it crossed the Nethan. The road to and from Corbie has been distinctly traced, for many miles; and from the concurrent opinions of antiquaries, this station is identified with the ancient Coria, a town of the Damnii, through which ran the great road from Carlisle to the wall of Antoninus. In the 12th century, the manor, with the church, belonged to the Bishop of Glasgow, whose right was confirmed by bulls from several popes. After the death of Alexander III., Bishop Wishart, with the consent of Edward I. of England, when that king was present to settle the dispute between Bruce and Baliol, built a stone castle near the church; and the manor and parish continued the property of the see of Glasgow till the Reformation.

The Parish, which is of an oblong form, is six miles in length, from north to south, and its average breadth is about three miles; it contains 11,840 acres. The surface is irregular, and is greatly marked in some parts by sand-knolls, which rise from fifteen to sixty feet above the general level, and inclose numerous mosses, formed from old woods, vegetable remains carried thither by winds, and the decomposition of plants, with an accumulation of stagnant water. The southern part is picturesque and beautiful, and ornamented by the expansive stream of the Clyde, the banks of which are enriched with fine pasture; and on a slope embosomed in forest scenery, and surrounded with plantations, lawns, and shrubberies, stands the magnificent structure of Carstairs House, from which the approach to the village furnishes one of the most interesting prospects in this part of the country. The river Mouse flows in a westerly direction through the centre of the parish, amidst dreary tracts of moss, among which it forms many deep pools; trout, pike, and various other kinds of fish, are taken by angling.

Near the Clyde, the soil is an alluvial deposit, bearing very superior crops. Between this and the passage of the Mouse, is a continuous bed of sandy earth, lying chiefly in the form of knolls, on a subsoil of sand and stones; and beyond the Mouse, in the western district, it is clayey, and in the eastern, chiefly a flat moss. The number of acres cultivated, or occasionally in tillage, is 9936; waste or pasture, 1509; and in wood and plantation, 400: of those which are waste, 500 are supposed capable of profitable cultivation. The produce consists of oats, barley, potatoes, turnips, and hay; the cattle are of the Ayrshire kind; all the modern improvements in agriculture have been adopted, and the growth of turnips has been particularly attended to. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6465. The prevailing rock is grey sandstone; there are also considerable quantities of whinstone, and some limestone, and in the north-west is a bed of fine clay, near which a tile-work has been erected, where drain-tiles are made. The road from Lanark to Edinburgh, by Carnwath, and also that by Wilsontown, and the road from Glasgow to Peebles, all run through the parish. Fairs were formerly held on the first Thursday in May, and the second in July and November, all O. S. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; patron, Henry Monteith, Esq. The minister's stipend is £234, and there is a manse, a well-built structure, with a glebe of the annual value of £35. The church, which was built in 1794, and has a handsome spire, is situated in the centre of the village, on an eminence, and contains 430 sittings. There is a parochial school, in which are taught the classics, practical mathematics, and all the usual branches of education; the master has the maximum salary, with a house and garden, an annual bequest of £1. 10., and £27. 13. fees.

Carstairs House.jpg

Carstairs House

Covington & Thankerton

COVINGTON and THANKERTON, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 4 miles (W. by N.) from Biggar; containing 523 inhabitants. Of these ancient parishes, which were united about the beginning of the 18th century, the former derives its name, anciently Colbanstoun, from its proprietor Colban, in the 12th century; and the latter, from a Flemish settler named Tankard or Thankard, who obtained a grant of lands here during the reign of Malcolm IV. The parish is about four miles in length, from south to north, and nearly three in average breadth, and is bounded on the east by the river Clyde, which separates it from the parish of Libberton. The number of acres is about 5500, of which nearly 2000 are arable, 80 acres woodland and plantations, and the remainder sheep pasture. The surface is varied, and the scenery in many parts of pleasing character. The soil along the banks of the Clyde is rich and fertile, and the lands occasionally subject to inundation; in the higher grounds are some portions of barren heath, but they generally afford good pasturage to numerous flocks of sheep. The system of agriculture is in an improved state; the chief crops are, oats, barley, peas, potatoes, and turnips. The lands have been much benefited by furrow-draining; considerable progress has been made in inclosing the several farms, and the farm-buildings and offices are in a very superior condition. The cattle are chiefly of the Angus breed, and the sheep of the black-faced kind. There is but little wood in the parish, and much improvement might be made, both in the appearance of the lands and in affording shelter, by a judicious increase of plantation. The Clyde abounds with trout and pike of considerable size. The villages of Covington and Thankeston are pleasantly situated, and at the latter is a bridge over the Clyde, which was erected by subscription, in 1778. The ecclesiastical affairs of the parish are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £208. 13. 7., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £17. 10.; patrons alternately, Sir Norman Lockhart, Bart., and Sir Windham Anstruther. The church of Thankeston has been suffered to fall into ruins, and that of Covington has been enlarged for the population of the whole parish. The parochial school is in the village of Covington; the master has a salary of £28, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £16 per annum.
 

Crawford & Leadhills

CRAWFORD, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the village of Leadhills, and containing 1684 inhabitants, of whom 236 are in the village of Crawford, 3 miles (S. E.) from Abington. This place has claims to a considerable degree of antiquity. In 943, or about that time, a church was founded here, and dedicated to Constantine, King of Scotland; and the lands appears to have been subsequently divided into two portions, of which the larger was bestowed on the abbey of Newbattle, and the smaller on the monastery of Holyrood. It seems to have been exposed to incessant attacks during the border warfare and the feuds of rival clans; and many of the ancient farm-houses were constructed as well for the purpose of defence against an assailing foe as for domestic use. The population was formerly much greater than at present, and the lands were divided among a larger number of tenants, the practice of joining together several small farms having, for the last century, been very prevalent in this part of the county. The parish is situated in the south-east portion of the county; it is about eighteen miles in length, and from fourteen to fifteen in breadth, and comprises 75,500 acres, of which 74,150 are pasture, chiefly sheep-walks, 1200 arable, and 150 woods and plantations. The surface is mountainous, and broken into glens and spreading valleys in almost every direction; among the highest of the mountains are those of Lowther, which are chiefly in this parish, and have an average elevation of about 2500 feet above the sea. The hills in general rise gradually from their bases, and afford good pasturage for sheep; and the valleys between them, especially such as have been improved by draining, are fertile. The river Clyde has its source in the parish, on a hill 1400 feet above the level of the sea, and flows in a gentle stream till it receives the river Daer and numerous other tributaries in its course through the parish. There are springs of excellent water, affording an abundant supply.

The soil of the arable land is rich on the banks of the Clyde, and also near the streams which fall into that river, especially at their influx; but in the other parts of the parish it is very various, though great improvements have been made by the use of lime and the introduction of green crops. The chief crops are oats, which thrive well, and the dairy-farms, though few, are profitably managed, affording, besides the produce of the dairy, excellent opportunities of rearing young cattle, of which, however, not many are raised here. The sheep are mostly of the Cheviot breed, to which the former stock of short and black faced sheep has given place, and which has been very much improved. Wood does not thrive well, though there are several trees of great age, which are supposed to be the remains of an ancient forest; and a charter in the possession of the Marquess of Lothian is still extant, in which the inhabitants of the parish of Crawford are invested with liberty to cut wood in the forest of Glengonar. The substratum of the soil is partially transition rock, and greywacke in all its various formations is prevalent. Slate, though not of very good quality, is found, and a quarry has been opened on the lands of the Earl of Hopetoun, which gives employment to a few men throughout the year. The mining district of the parish is extensive, comprising an area of three miles in length, and of nearly equal breadth, and is rich in a great variety of produce: a populous village has been erected within this district, which is described under the appellation of Leadhills. The rateable annual value of the parish is £12,341. The principal mansion-houses are, the Hall, belonging to the earl, and Newton House, the seat of the late Lord Newton, by whom it was erected, in a substantial and handsome style.

The village of Crawford is of considerable antiquity, and formerly enjoyed numerous privileges, being governed by a bailie, and having, till lately, a court called a Birley court; it is situated on the road to Glasgow, and the inhabitants are chiefly employed in agriculture. A handsome chain-bridge was constructed over the Clyde at this place, in 1831, at the expense of the heritors; and an elegant stone bridge was erected over the same river, at Newton, in 1824, affording a facility of communication with the neighbouring towns. The parish is in the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £233. 13., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £13. 10. per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, an ancient structure in good repair, is conveniently situated, and affords accommodation to about 300 persons. There is a chapel in connexion with the Established Church at Leadhills, the minister of which has a stipend of £70, with a house, provided by the Earl of Hopetoun and the Mining Company. The parochial school affords a good education; the master has a salary of £34, with £16 fees, and a house and garden. There are several mineral springs, two of which, in their properties, resemble those of Moffat; and near the boundary of the parish, at Campshead, is a petrifying spring, in which many beautiful specimens are found. Among the principal remains of antiquity is the castle of Crawford, which was surrounded by a moat, and strongly fortified; and there are still preserved memorials of ecclesiastical edifices formerly existing in the parish, of which one is an ancient cemetery on the banks of a stream called Chapel Burn. There are also several Roman camps, of which the most perfect are, one on Boadsberry hill, and another on a farm called Whitecamp; the two Roman roads by Moffat and Dumfries united in this parish, and formed one great road towards Lamington. An urn of baked earth, containing fragments of bones, was discovered some years since on the castle farm. The celebrated poet, Allan Ramsay, was born at Leadhills, where he resided till his removal to Edinburgh; and James Taylor, to whom is attributed the first discovery of the application of steam to the propelling of vessels on the sea, and who assisted Mr. Miller of Dalswinton in making some successful experiments in 1788, was the son of one of the overseers in the mines at Leadhills.

Crawfordjohn

CRAWFORDJOHN, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the post-village of Abington, and containing 993 inhabitants, of whom 137 are in the village of Crawfordjohn. This place, of which the name is supposed to have been derived from some proprietor of lands within the district, appears to have been originally a chapelry in the parish of Wiston. It was granted, together with the church of that place, to the monastery of Glasgow, and subsequently to that of Kelso, which retained it till about the year 1450, when it became a separate and independent parish. The lands coming into the possession of two co-heiresses, were for a considerable time held in moieties, till, in the reign of James V., Sir James Hamilton of Finart obtained them. After his decease, they descended to the Hamiltons of this place and Avondale, from whom, together with the patronage of the church, they were purchased by James, Marquess of Hamilton, about the year 1620. In the reign of Charles II., the village of Crawfordjohn was, by charter granted to Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, made a burgh of barony, and the inhabitants were endowed with the privilege of a weekly market and several annual fairs, which have long been in disuse. Few events of historical importance are connected with the place: part of the rebel forces passed through it on their march to Glasgow, in the year 1745.

The parish is pleasantly situated on the banks of the river Duneaton, which partly separates it on the north from the parish of Douglas; it is bounded on the south by the river Glengonner. On the east flows the river Clyde, and on the west are the counties of Dumfries and Ayr, which unite with that of Lanark on the border of the parish, at a point where a stone has been erected called the Three-shire stone. The length of the parish is nearly twelve miles, and its breadth, which may be averaged at nine, varies from two to ten miles, comprising an irregular area of 26,600 acres, of which 4200 are arable, about 60 plantations, and the remainder pasture for sheep. The surface is sometimes flat, and inclosed by gently sloping hills of various elevation, forming a spacious glen, through which the river Duneaton winds its course for nearly nine miles, receiving in its progress the waters of the Snar, Blackburn, and other streams. The rivers abound with trout, and the Blackburn is celebrated for a dark-coloured species, which excel in quality, and are in great request, and also for eels, of which some are of large growth.

The soil is extremely various; on the banks of the river it is a rich black loam, except in those parts which are subject to inundation, where it becomes mixed with sand and gravel. The sides of the hills are in some places a deep red clay, capable, under proper management, of producing excellent crops; and in several parts is a deep moss, which, after judicious draining, has in many instances been converted into fertile arable land. The principal crops are, oats, bear, potatoes, and turnips. The pastures are very rich; the meadows afford abundant crops of clover and rye-grass, and the hills yield good pasturage for sheep, of which the average number permanently kept in the parish exceeds 10,000. There are several large dairy-farms producing butter and cheese, which are of excellent quality, and find a ready market at Edinburgh and Glasgow; and a peculiar kind of cheese compounded of cows' and ewes' milk obtains a high price, and is in great demand. The average number of cows exceeds 1000, chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, to the improvement of which much attention has been paid; the sheep are of the black-faced kind, except a few of a mixed breed between the Cheviot and the Leicester. The plantations, which are chiefly at Glespin, Gilkerscleugh, and Abington, are Scotch fir, spruce, beech, lime, chesnut, and oak. Some advance has been made in draining and inclosing the lands; and a society for encouraging the improvement of live stock has been established by the farmers of this and the parish of Crawford, which has been sanctioned by many of the heritors in both. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6329.

The substratum of the soil and the bases of the hills are mostly whinstone and freestone, of which several quarries are worked; limestone is also prevalent, and works have been established at Whitecleugh and Wildshaw. There are indications of coal in several parts of the parish, though no works have been opened; leadore has been found at Craighead, and near the source of the Snar, at which latter place it is wrought. Some vestiges remain of a work opened at Abington for the discovery of gold; and in repairing a road some years since, several pieces of spar, in which copper was imbedded, were found among the rubbish. There is also a tradition that silver-mines were formerly wrought in the parish, though probably it might have originated in finding small portions of that metal in combination with the lead-ore. A subscription library has been established in the village of Crawfordjohn, and there is likewise one supported at Abington. The parish is in the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £233. 13., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum; patron. Sir T. E. Colebrooke. The church, which is conveniently situated, was enlarged in 1817, and will accommodate 300 persons. The parochial school is attended by about seventy scholars; the master has a salary of £32, with £26 fees, and a house and garden. There were formerly the remains of the castles of Crawfordjohn, Mosscastle, Glendorch, and Snar, the last of which was celebrated for the exploits of its proprietor during the border warfare. On a hill near Gilkerscleugh are traces of a circular encampment consisting of two concentric circles, the innermost of which is about thirty yards in diameter, and has between it and the outer an interval of ten yards. There are vestiges of a similar intrenchment near Abington; and on the bank of the river Clyde is a moat, in the centre of which is a mound about fifty yards in circumference at the base, and thirty feet in height. In the peat-bogs are frequently discovered alder-trees and hazel in a prostrate position, and, at various times, coins of Antoninus, and others of the reign of Edward I.

Culter

CULTER, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 2½ miles (S. W.) from Biggar; containing 536 inhabitants, of whom 197 are in the village. This place takes its name from its situation in the rear of the district of which it forms a part. The parish was originally of less extent than at present, having in 1794 been much enlarged by the addition of part of the parish of Kilbucho, in the adjoining county of Peebles. It is now seven miles in length, and rather less than three in average breadth; it is bounded on the west by the river Clyde, and comprises 11,547 acres, of which 4000 are arable, 7000 meadow and pasture, and 500 woodland and plantations. The surface is pleasingly undulated, and towards the south rises into hills of considerable eminence, increasing into mountains, of which the highest, called the Fell, has an elevation of more than 2300 feet above the sea. The lower part of the parish is diversified with spreading vales and narrow glens. The former are enlivened by the course of the river Clyde, the banks of which are ornamented with handsome seats and pleasure-grounds; and of the latter, the glen of Culter Water, which derives its name from that rivulet, is beautifully picturesque and romantic. The wider portion of it is richly cultivated and wooded, and the narrower part gradually diminishes till it scarcely affords room for the passage of the stream, which, after flowing through the whole length of the parish, falls into the Clyde a little below the village. At a point called Wolf-Clyde, the river makes a remarkable curve towards the north-west, approaching very nearly to the bank of the Biggar water, which runs into the Tweed; and in high floods, uniting with that stream, a considerable portion of the Clyde waters is carried into the Tweed.

The soil varies considerably, but is generally dry and fertile. The lower lands consist of a sandy loam, which, under good management, is very productive; on the hills the soil is of much lighter quality, and on the summits mostly a sterile moss; towards the eastern part of the parish, on the lands of Kilbucho, it inclines to clay. The hills are of the greywacke formation; and little variety is found in the substrata, except the occasional occurrence of conglomerate or pudding-stone. The system of agriculture has been greatly improved under the auspices of the chief landed proprietor, who has also greatly promoted the plantation of timber, the draining and inclosure of the lands, and the raising of wheat crops, to which previously little attention had been paid. The rotation plan of husbandry is now generally prevalent, and green crops are found to answer well; the chief produce of the cornfields is oats. The sheep are the short black-faced breed, which are found to be the best adapted to the hilly pastures; the cows are the Ayrshire. The rateable annual value of the parish is £5231. The plantations are principally of Scotch fir; but, though it thrives well for a few years, it soon falls into decay, and consequently little timber of any growth is produced. At Culterallers, however, are some acres of natural trees, among which are the alder, birch, hazel, mountain-ash, and willow; and in other parts of the parish are remarkably fine specimens of ancient timber. The mansion-houses, most of which are beautifully situated on the banks of the Clyde, add greatly to the scenery of the parish. The village is pleasantly situated on the banks of the Culter water, along which, at irregular distances, a range of neatly-built houses with intervening trees of fine growth, extends for a considerable way. It is intersected by the turnpike-road from Dumfries to Edinburgh, which is carried over the stream by a neat bridge of modern erection.

The parish, which is of some antiquity, belonged in the reign of David II. to Walter Byset, who held the half barony of Culter of the king in capite, and in 1367 granted the lands, with the advowson of the church, excepting only the lands of Nisbet, to William Newbiggin, of Dunsyre. They afterwards came into the possession of William, Earl of Douglas, by whose descendant, James, they were in 1455 forfeited to the crown. Sir David Menzies, who afterwards obtained possession of the half barony, gave the lands of Wolf-Clyde to the abbey of Melrose, and they now pay annually a small sum to the Duke of Buccleuch as lord of that manor. The parish is in the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of the families of Baillie of Lamington, and Dickson of Kilbucho, alternately. The minister's stipend is £217, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £30. 12. per annum. The church, erected in 1810, a plain edifice beautifully situated, commodious, and accessible to the parishioners, is adapted to a congregation of nearly 400 persons. A place of worship has been erected in connexion with the Free Church. The parochial school affords education to all the children of the parish except those of the part formerly in the parish of Kilbucho, the original school of which is still retained; the salary of the master of Culter school is £34, with £20 fees, and a dwelling-house and garden. There was formerly a preceptory of the Knights' Templars on the banks of the Culter water, a little below the village; the site is called Chapel Hill. Remains exist of four circular encampments, which seem to have been formed for the protection of the inhabitants, and the security of their cattle, during the periods of the border warfare. There are also two circular moats, one at Wolf-Clyde, and one at Bamflat, which appear to have been raised as signal stations; and along the vale between the Clyde and the Tweed, is a continuous chain of similar mounds, most probably employed for the same purpose. About half a mile from the lands of Nisbet, is an oval mound in the midst of a deep morass; the longer diameter is about forty yards, and the shorter about thirty, and it rises above the surface to the height of nearly three feet. It is called the Green Knowe, and consists of heaps of loose stones, compacted together by stakes of hard oak, sharpened at the points, and driven into the ground. Around the base is a causeway of larger stones; and the whole is surrounded by a soft elastic moss, impervious to the approach of an enemy.

Dalserf

DALSERF, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Millheugh, Larkhall, and Rosebank, and containing 3205 inhabitants, of whom 112 are in the village of Dalserf, 7 miles (S. E. by E.) from Hamilton. This place is supposed to derive its name from the Gaelic words Dal, signifying "a holm" or "flat field," and Sarf, "a serpent," making together the term "the field of serpents." The parish was anciently called Machanshire, but assumed the name of Dalserf, as is generally thought, about the time of the Reformation, through the removal of the church from its former site, at Chapelburn, to the locality of the village of Dalserf. It was originally an appendage and chapelry of Cadzow, now Hamilton, parish, and was during a long period the property of the crown. The celebrated family of the Comyns had for some time possession of it; but it reverted to the crown in the reign of Baliol, and in 1312 Robert Bruce made a grant of it to Sir Walter, son of Gilbert, ancestor of the Hamilton family, who have retained the principal estates in the parish to the present time. In the 14th century the district was made a barony, called the barony of Machane or Machanshire. The Hamiltons prominently appear in Scottish history; they warmly espoused the cause of Mary, Queen of Scots, and several of them were engaged in her wars, and afterwards suffered severely for the part they had taken in them.

The parish is six and a half miles in extreme length, and varies in breadth from two miles to four and a half, containing 7219 acres; it is bounded on the east and north-east by the river Clyde, and on the west and south-west by the Avon and Cander. The surface in the centre of the parish is tolerably level; but on the east towards the Clyde, and on the west towards the Avon, the fall is considerable, and in many places somewhat abrupt. The slope towards the north is continuous, and far more gradual than those on the eastern and western sides. The view on the north and north-west is terminated by the Campsie hills and the mountains of Dumbarton and Argyllshire; the view on the south is bounded by Tinto, of which, with its circumjacent scenery, a very fine prospect may be had from the high lands in this parish. Large quantities of pheasants and woodcocks, and some black-cocks, are seen here; and at the close of autumn, many flocks of plovers from the moorlands visit the wheat-fields. The chief rivers are the Clyde and Avon; the Cander, which is the next in size, falls into the Avon, and gives the name of the district of Cander to that part of the parish inclosed by it, where there are some superior farms. Numerous burns rise in the parish, and breaking forth from the high ridge on the western side of the river Clyde, dash in many places with great impetuosity over the abrupt sandstone rocks, forming several beautiful cascades. After this they run on till they fall into the Clyde. The ravines formed by these waterfalls, which are swollen in some parts of the year and frequently dry in others, are clothed with foliage, and stretching across the country obliquely to the two great rivers, diversify the scenery, and add considerably to the striking views on the Clyde. The river Avon, also, has clusters of verdant knolls and many clumps of rich plantation on its precipitous sides. The chief streams contain salmon, trout, salmon-fry, and par, which, however, bear at present no proportion to their former numbers, owing to the machinery erected on the banks, from which the residuum of chemical and dyeing operations runs into the waters; the drainage of lime manure from contiguous lands; and the passage of steam-vessels.

The soil varies considerably throughout the parish. The low ground in the neighbourhood of the rivers is mostly rich alluvial deposit, consisting chiefly of sand and mud of great depth, resting upon a subsoil of sand and gravel. In the higher lands near the Glasgow and Carlisle road, and by the village of Dalserf, which stands about 120 feet above the level of the sea, the soil is a strong heavy clay, lying upon a compact tenacious subsoil of till. In some places are strips of sandy earth; and in others, especially near the Avon, the grounds are chiefly loam. The southern part contains a few acres of moss; but, with this exception, the whole parish is cultivated. The chief crops are wheat and oats, the soil in general not being considered suited to green crops, though in some parts very good potatoes, turnips, carrots, and beet-root are produced. The farmers pay great attention to dairy-farming; the cows are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, and about 500 are kept. Much competition exists in the improvement of every description of live stock, for which premiums have been awarded to some of the farmers by the Highland and Agricultural Society of Scotland. The cultivation of orchards also forms an important part of the rural occupations, the parish being situated in about the centre of the great range of fruit plantations in Clydesdale. A few acres of fruit-trees are cultivated on the banks of the Avon; but the chief plantations are near the Clyde, among the acclivities overlooking the river, which are too abrupt and rugged to admit the approach of the plough. Apples, pears, and plums of every kind grow luxuriantly, the plum range, however, only extending a distance of three or four miles along the river. The rateable annual value of the parish is £7704. The rocks consist of sandstone and freestone, of the latter of which several excellent quarries are wrought. Large quantities of coal, also, are obtained in every direction, the district forming a part of the great coal basin stretching from near Glasgow in the north, for a distance of about thirty miles, to the water of Douglas in the south. The produce of the collieries, some years ago, was about 16,000 tons annually; but it is now much more considerable.

The chief mansions are, Dalserf, Millburn, and Broomhill, all of which are respectable structures, standing in the midst of beautiful scenery. The villages are considerable, and together contain about two-thirds of the population of the parish. Some of the inhabitants are engaged in the manufacture of cotton, the weaving of which is superintended by agents employed by Glasgow firms; and many females are occupied in the manufacture of lace, for the houses at Hamilton. Among the roads that intersect the parish are, one from Glasgow to Carlisle, another from Glasgow to Lanark, and a third from Edinburgh to Ayr, which crosses the river Clyde at Garion Bridge. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. There is an old manse, with a glebe worth £37. 10. per annum; the stipend is £264. 12., and the Duke of Hamilton is patron. The church, which is beautifully though somewhat inconveniently situated on the bank of the Clyde, was built in 1655, and repaired in 1721; it contains 550 sittings. There are two parochial schools, one of which is in the village of Dalserf, and the other at Larkhall; the classics, mathematics, French, with all the usual branches of education, are taught, and the master of the Dalserf school has a salary of £34, with a house and garden. A good subscription library has been established at Larkhall, and another at Dalserf with 120 volumes. The chief relics of antiquity are two tumuli, in one of which, situated at Dalpatrick, some workmen a few years ago found a stone coffin, about two feet and a half long, and a foot and a half wide, in which was deposited an urn containing a human jaw with the teeth, and other bones. Another urn was also found, of very superior materials and construction, near which was a lamp of baked clay. The remains of mounds with fortifications, and cairns, may still be faintly traced; and some years ago an earthen pot was dug up at Millheugh, containing coins of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. There are several chalybeate springs in the parish, and one or two impregnated with sulphur.

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Dalserf Church circa 1904

Dalziel

DALZIEL, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 2½ miles (E. N. E.) from Hamilton; containing, with the villages of Motherwell and Windmill-Hill, 1457 inhabitants. The parish of Dalziel is by some writers supposed to have derived that appellation, signifying "the white meadow," from the peculiar appearance of the lands before they were brought into cultivation. It is said to have given name to the family upon whom the barony of Dalziel was bestowed by Kenneth II., in recompeuse of some exploit performed by them in the service of that monarch. In 1365, Sir Robert Dalziel obtained a grant of the barony of Selkirk from David Bruce, whose firm adherent he had been in his troubles, and to whom he manifested the truest loyalty during the king's captivity in England; but the whole estates were subsequently forfeited in that reign, and conferred upon the Sandiland family. By marriage, however, with one of the coheiresses, the barony of Dalziel returned into the possession of the family, then represented by the grandson of the original proprietor, Sir Robert Dalziel. This personage was created Lord Dalziel by Charles I., and subsequently bought the whole of the estate; but, having afterwards purchased the lands of Carnwath from James, Earl of Buchan, and been created, in 1639, Earl of Carnwath, he sold this estate to James Hamilton, Esq., whose descendant is the present proprietor.

The parish is bounded on the north and west by the river Calder, and on the south-west by the river Clyde; it is about four miles in length, and three in breadth, comprising 2283 Scottish acres, of which about onetenth is pasture, 410 acres woodland and plantations, and the remainder arable. The surface rises gradually from the Clyde and the Calder towards the centre, where it forms a flat ridge, averaging 200 feet in elevation above the sea; and it is diversified with several glens of romantic appearance, of which one, called Dalziel glen, is about two miles in length. The river Clyde is subject to great inundations, to prevent which an embankment has been constructed; the Calder, which is here about sixty feet in breadth, takes its rise in the neighbouring parish of Shotts, and falls into the Clyde near the extremity of this parish. The Dalziel burn has its source in the parish of Cambusnethan, and, flowing through the glen of Dalziel, falls into the Clyde. The Soil is generally a stiff clay, but on the banks of the rivers a rich loam; the crops are, oats, wheat, beans, and peas. There are several large dairy-farms; the cows are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, and a few horses and sheep are reared. On the banks of the Clyde are several orchards, the principal of which produces on an average about £600 per annum; an improved method of pruning has been introduced with success, and great attention is paid to the cultivation of the trees. The plantations consist of fir, larch, oak, ash, elm, lime, and plane; a fine avenue nearly a mile in length extends along the banks of the Clyde, and near the mansion-house of Dalziel is a venerable oak, measuring twenty-one feet in girth at a distance of nearly five feet from the ground. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4983.

The substratum of the lands is principally clay-slate, interspersed with freestone of various quality, among which is found a seam of flagstone. A quarry of hardgrained freestone has been opened near Windmill-Hill, which is wrought into mantel-pieces, and is susceptible of a high polish; and near the village of Craigneuk is a valuable quary of flagstone, of a reddish colour, and varying from one-quarter of an inch to five inches in thickness. Coal abounds in the parish, which is situated nearly in the centre of the coal district of the Clyde; the only mine in operation is near Coursington. Dalziel House, erected in 1649, by an ancestor of the present proprietor, is beautifully situated on the north side of the Dalziel burn, and in the most picturesque part of the romantic glen to which that stream gives name. The building has all the character of an ancient baronial residence, and attached to it is a tower about fifty feet high, the walls of which are eight feet thick; the several apartments are commodious, and in the dining-room are numerous family portraits, among which are those of Sir John Hamilton, of Orbiston, and Lord Westhall, one of the senators of the College of Justice. There is a small foundry for the manufacture of spades, in which about fifteen persons are employed. Means of communication with the neighbouring market-towns are afforded by good roads, among which is one from Glasgow to Lanark; and the Wishaw and Coltness railway passes for nearly three miles through the parish, and greatly facilitates the conveyance of the produce.

The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton, and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of J. G. C. Hamilton, Esq. The minister's stipend is £155. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £50 per annum. The church, dedicated to St. Patrick, was in the twelfth century granted, together with its revenues, to the abbey of Paisley, and subsequently to the dean and chapter of Glasgow, in whose possession it continued to the Reformation. The ancient building, which was of the same date as the cathedral of Glasgow, was taken down about ten years after the erection of the present church, which was built in 1789, and is a neat cruciform structure. The members of the Free Church have a place of worship. The parochial school affords a good education; the master has a salary of £34, with £18 fees, and a house and garden. The western branch of the Roman Watling-street entered this parish at Meadowhead, and passed through it in a direction from east to west. Till within the last twenty years a considerable portion of it remained, in a high state of preservation; but it has been obliterated by the construction of the modern road from Glasgow to Lanark, and no trace of it can be at present discerned. Near the north-west boundary of the parish is a very ancient bridge over the river Calder, still called the Roman bridge; it consists of a single arch of great height, is about twelve feet in breadth, and without parapets. This bridge is supposed to have formed a continuation of the Roman road into the parish of Bothwell. Close to it was a Roman camp, which has for many years been destroyed; and nearly in the centre of the parish, on the steep bank of the river Clyde, are the remains of another, of which portions of the ancient fosses may still be traced. On the site of this camp, about a century since, the proprietor erected a summer-house, round which he formed terrace-walks and plantations, and from the summit of which a fine panoramic view of the surrounding country is obtained, combining many of the most interesting features of Scottish scenery. Near the site of Nisbet House, is one of the stones at which the ancient barons dispensed justice to their vassals; it is of heptagonal form, and one of the faces is ornamented with the representation of a sword. There were formerly two others in the parish, near the site of the Roman road; they have both been removed.

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Motherwell Steel Works

Dolphinton

DOLPHINTON, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 6 miles (S. W.) from Biggar; containing 305 inhabitants. This place, anciently Dolphinstown, derived its name from Dolfine, elder brother of Cospatrick, first earl of Dunbar, and who, in the reign of Alexander I., acquired possession of the manor, which, after passing through numerous families, of whom several were eminently distinguished, was divided among various proprietors. The parish is about three miles in length, from east to west, and two miles and a half in breadth, and the surface, which has a gentle acclivity, is tolerably level, with the exception of the hills of Dolphinton and Keir, the former 1550, and the latter 900, feet above the level of the sea. The principal stream is the Medwin, which, near Garveld House, divides into two channels, the one flowing eastward into the Tweed, and the other westward into the river Clyde. There is also a small rivulet which, after receiving several tributary rills, falls into the Lyne. The scenery is generally pleasing, but the want of wood renders it less picturesque; great numbers of young plantations, however, have latterly been formed, which will soon contribute much to its embellishment.

The soil is generally a dry friable loam, intermixed with sand; in some parts, a kind of clay with portions of moss. The whole number of acres in the parish is estimated at 3668, of which 2221 are arable, 444 in woods and plantations, and the remainder, of which probably 300 acres might be rendered arable, are rough pasture and waste. The chief crops are oats and turnips, and barley, wheat, and potatoes are also grown; the system of agriculture is improved, and considerable progress has been made in draining, and much land heretofore totally unproductive has been converted into excellent meadow producing luxuriant crops of hay. Attention is paid to the management of the dairy; 200 milch-cows, chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, are kept on the several farms, and about 100 head of young cattle are annually reared. About 1000 sheep, also, are annually fed, the greater number of which are of the black-faced, and a few of the Cheviot breed. The rateable annual value of the parish is £1988. The substrata are, whinstone, sandstone, and freestone. Some indications of lead-ore induced an attempt in search of that mineral, but it was not attended with success; fireclay is obtained, and in the southern extremity of the parish is found a kind of stone well adapted for ovens. Dolphinton House and Newholm are handsome mansions of modern erection. The road from Edinburgh to Biggar intersects the parish.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The stipend of the incumbent is £158, of which above two-thirds are received from the exchequer; the manse was put into thorough repair and enlarged in 1828, and the glebe comprises about twelve acres, valued at £27. 10. per annum; patron, Lord Douglas. The church is a tolerably substantial edifice, but inadequate to the wants of the population; it appears to have been built about two centuries since. The parochial school is well conducted; the master has a salary of £26, with a house and garden, and the fees average about £15. He receives, also, the rent of four acres of land bequeathed by William Brown, in 1658, and now producing £8 per annum; the interest of 1000 merks by the same benefactor, for the gratuitous instruction of poor children; and 100 merks for instructing twenty children, bequeathed by Mr. Bowie, in 1759. Mr. Bowie also bequeathed 100 merks for the education of any youth of promising genius, or, in failure of such, to be appropriated to the apprenticing of children; fifty merks, either to the poor, or for the purchase of school books for children; and fifty merks to the minister for managing the property, which consists of lands at Stonypath, purchased by the testator for 8000 merks, and given in trust to the minister and Kirk Session for the above purposes. On the summit of Keir hill are some remains of an ancient camp in good preservation; there are also similar remains at other places in the parish. Within less than a mile south-west of the manse, is a tumulus of stones, about four feet in height, surrounded by a circle of upright stones inclosing an area of twenty paces in diameter. Near this spot was found an ornament of fine gold, resembling part of a horse's bit, with about forty gold beads; stone coffins are frequently found in various parts of the parish, of rude and ancient construction, and numerous sepulchral remains.

Douglas

DOUGLAS, a market-town and parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the village of Uddington, and containing 2467 inhabitants, of whom 1313 are in the town of Douglas, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Crawfordjohn, and 40½ (S. W. by S.) from Edinburgh. This place derives its name from the ancient and renowned family of Douglas, to whose ancestor Theobald, by birth a Fleming, Arnold, abbot of Kelso, gave a large tract of land about the middle of the twelfth century. William, son of Theobald, appears as a witness to various charters granted towards the close of that century; and in 1289 his descendant, William Douglas, was one of the Scottish barons who signed an address to Edward I. of England, on behalf of their countrymen. During the protracted warfare between England and Scotland in the reign of that monarch, Douglas Castle, which was strongly fortified, and commanded the entrance to the western counties, was an object of continual dispute between the contending parties. It frequently fell into the hands of the English, from whom it was as frequently retaken by its original proprietors. On one occasion it was taken from Sir John De Walton, who held it for the English, by Sir James Douglas, who, having assembled a strong retinue of his friends, entered the town on Palm-Sunday, while part of the garrison were at church, and attacking them as they came out, put them to the sword, and, immediately advancing to the castle, made himself master of the place. The castle, exposed to continual assaults, was of very precarious tenure, and, from the difficulty of maintaining possession, was distinguished by the appellation of the Castle of Danger. It was often destroyed, and more than once by fire; but it was always restored, and continued in the possession of the earls of Douglas till 1455, when it was forfeited, together with the estates, and granted to the Earl of Angus, in whose family it remained till the death of the Duke of Douglas in 1760. The issue of the famous Douglas cause now vested the estate in the duke's nephew; and in 1790 the title, which had become extinct, was revived by the elevation of Mr. Douglas to the peerage, by the title of Baron Douglas, of Douglas.

The Parish is situated near the south-western extremity of the county, and is about twelve miles in length, and from four to seven miles in breadth, comprising 35,318 acres, of which about 5000 are arable, 28,000 pasture, 2000 wood, and 400 waste land and moss. The Douglas river intersects the parish, flowing through a valley which increases in breadth as it approaches the river Clyde, into which the Douglas discharges itself, after receiving in its course numerous tributary streams. The ground on both sides of the valley rises to a considerable elevation, forming in some parts a succession of hills which terminate towards the west in the Cairntable mountain, whose summit is 1650 feet above the level of the sea, and at the base of which the Douglas has its source. The heights on each side of the river are embellished with ornamental plantations; and in various parts of the parish are extensive woods of ancient and luxuriant growth, especially near Douglas Castle, in the grounds of which are some ash and plane trees of large dimensions. The soil is generally fertile in the vale; in other parts lighter and gravelly, and in some a stiff clay; and the moors, though partly marshy, afford fine sheep-walks, and in many places consist of rich black loam. The principal crops are, oats, barley, and bear, with occasionally wheat, the cultivation of which has been recently introduced with success, but on a very small scale; turnips and potatoes, for which the soil is favourable, are raised in large quantities. The pastures are very extensive and rich, and great numbers of sheep are reared, to the improvement of which much attention is paid; the average number exceeds 25,000, chiefly of the black-faced breed, which has been brought to great perfection. The parish contains numerous dairyfarms, producing cheese and butter of superior quality; the cows, of which the number kept is about 500, are the Ayrshire, and about the same number of black-cattle are fed. There are quarries of freestone of excellent quality, for building; it is of a fine white colour, and is much admired. Limestone is also prevalent, and is quarried for manure and other purposes; coal is very abundant, and numerous mines have been opened, affording supplies of fuel to the places situated to the south and east, and giving employment to a great number of the population. Ironstone is found in several parts of the parish, though not worked; and in others its prevalence may be inferred from the property of many of the springs, which are strongly impregnated with that mineral. Great advances have been made in draining and inclosing the lands, and the rateable annual value of the parish is now £11,013.

Douglas Castle, the seat of Lord Douglas, is beautifully situated in grounds that were very much improved by the late proprietor. The castle, which was partly rebuilt, after being destroyed by an accidental fire, has not, though a splendid seat in its present state, been completed according to the original plan designed by Mr. Adam; one wing only has been finished, and from the dimensions of this, which contains more than fifty apartments, some of them magnificent, the whole would have formed one of the most extensive residences in the kingdom. The scene of Castle-Dangerous, the last novel of Sir Walter Scott, was laid here. The other gentlemen's seats in the parish are, Carmacoup, Spring Hill, and Crossburn House, an elegant villa, of which the grounds are tastefully disposed. The town or village is of very great antiquity, and was formerly of some importance. As the head of the barony, it had a charter of incorporation giving to its magistrates many privileges, among which was the power of jurisdiction in capital offences; and to the east of the town is an eminence called Gallow Hill, formerly the place for the execution of criminals. The streets are narrow, and most of the houses are of ancient date, and apparently built for defence against the frequent incursions of an enemy; the walls are massive, and the windows few and rather small, presenting a forbidding and gloomy appearance. A subscription library has been founded, which at present contains more than 1000 volumes, and is rapidly increasing. A cotton-factory was established here in 1792, by a company from Glasgow, which after a few years declined; but many of the inhabitants are still employed in weaving cotton for the manufacturers of that city, with handlooms in their own dwellings. The market is held on Friday, and there are seven fairs, which are well attended. The road from Edinburgh to Ayr, and that from Glasgow to London, pass through the parish, affording facility of intercourse with the principal towns in the neighbourhood; but as a place of trade, the town is at present little more than a village for the residence of persons employed in weaving, and in other mechanical occupations.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The stipend of the incumbent is £250; the manse is a handsome residence, built in 1828, and pleasantly situated in grounds well laid out, and the glebe comprises some valuable land. Of the ancient church, which appears to have been a very stately and elegant structure, little more remains than the sepulchral chapel of the Douglas family, with a small spire; it contains many monuments, which, though much mutilated and defaced by Cromwell's soldiers during the usurpation, still display features of exquisite sculpture. Among them is the monument of Sir James Douglas, the firm adherent and friend of Robert Bruce, who fell in combat in Spain, and whose remains were conveyed by his companions in arms for interment in the church of his native place. It is of dark-coloured stone, and bears the recumbent figure of a knight armed cap-à-pie, with the legs crossed, in reference to his having been on a crusade to the Holy Land. There is also a monument to Archibald Douglas, Duke of Touraine, which appears to have been of elaborate workmanship; and in a niche is a table monument to James Douglas, Duke of Touraine, with two recumbent figures, and ornamented with ten figures in basso-relievo beneath. The present church, a comparatively modern building, is not sufficiently spacious for the accommodation of the parishioners: underneath it is a vault in which are deposited the remains of numerous members of the Douglas family, for which the ancient sepulchral chapel afforded no room. The parochial school is well attended; the master has the maximum salary, with an excellent dwelling-house and garden, and the fees amount to about £60. Near the base of Cairntable mountain, are the remains of a fortified post, probably occupied by the Douglases during their repeated attempts to surprise the English garrisons that so frequently held possession of Douglas Castle; and within a mile of the castle are the remains of a stronghold called Tothorl Castle, supposed to have been thrown up by Sir Richard de Thirlwall, who was lieutenant-governor of Douglas under Sir Robert de Clifford. Within the castle-grounds is a mound designated Boncastle, near which has been found an urn, with a great number of human bones, a ring of pure gold of great weight, the head of a spear, and various other relics of antiquity. There are also several cairns in the parish. Among the most distinguished natives of this place, for literary attainments, was Dr. John Black, author of the Life of Tasso and other works.

Douglas St Brides.jpg

St Brides Church, Douglas

Dunsyre

DUNSYRE, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 1½ mile (W. N. W.) from Roberton, and 5 miles (S. W.) from Linton; containing 288 inhabitants, of whom 68 are in the village. This place, of which the name, of Celtic origin, is supposed to signify the "hill of the seer," appears to have formed part of the possessions of various families of distinction in the earlier periods of Scottish history, and is now, with the exception of a small portion, the property of Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart, Bart. The parish is more than four miles in length from north to south, and from three to four miles in breadth, and is bounded on the east and south by the South Medwin, and on the north by the North Medwin and Dryburn, it comprises 8779 Scottish acres, of which about oneeighth are arable, and the remainder pasture and waste, with thirty acres of woodland and plantations. The surface is generally elevated, and rises into hills of considerable height, of which that of Dunsyre forms in this parish the termination of the Pentland hills, a range extending for nearly twenty miles from the immediate vicinity of Edinburgh. This hill has an elevation of 500 feet above the general surface of the lands, and of 1230 above the sea; and a small range of gradually diminishing hills branches off towards the west from it, stretching to the parish of Carnwath. Between the Dunsyre and Walston ranges is the level valley of the South Medwin, about three miles in length and a mile broad. The scenery of the parish is enlivened with plantations and with numerous streams, of which the only one that may be called a river is the South Medwin, having its source in the north-eastern extremity of the parish, near the base of Craigingar, and which, flowing through the valley, is, after a course of two or three miles further, diverted towards the west, where it receives a stream called the West water, issuing from the hills to the north. Craneloch, situated in the moorland, is about a mile in circumference, but the scenery is destitute of beauty, presenting nothing but marshy lands skirted with heath; it abounds with pike and perch, and trout is also found in both the Medwins. The lands abound with springs of excellent water, and there are some which have a petrifying quality, and others strongly impregnated with iron.

The soil is generally light and sandy, in some parts intermixed with clay, and in others almost a barren heath; the crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is advanced, and the rotation plan of husbandry universally adopted; the lands have been drained to a considerable extent, and the channel of the South Medwin straightened to afford greater facilities for draining the marshy grounds in its vicinity. Attention is paid to the management of the dairy, and to the improvement of stock; the milch-cows on the dairy-farms are all of the Ayrshire breed, and the cattle mostly with a cross of a heavier kind for agricultural purposes and for the market. About 3000 sheep, chiefly of the black-faced breed, are annually pastured. Considerable quantities of skim-milk and Dunlop cheese, and of butter, are sent to the neighbouring markets; and the dairy produce generally is esteemed equal in quality to that of any part of the county of Ayr. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2624. The substrata are mainly whinstone of a blueish colour, freestone, and an indifferent kind of limestone, with partial seams of a much purer kind resembling grey marble, and varying from eight to sixteen feet in depth; traces of iron-ore are found in several places, and copper-ore is supposed to exist. Coal is also thought to prevail in some parts, but no efficient attempt to procure it has yet been made. The woods and plantations are chiefly Scotch fir and larch, but they are rather diminishing than increasing in extent. The village is pleasantly situated in the vale of the North Medwin: at Medwin Bank are a carding-mill and a dyeing establishment. The parish is in the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and patronage of the Crown; the minister's stipend is £156. 15., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £28 per annum. The church, situated on an eminence on the bank of the river Medwin, is an ancient edifice, with a tower in the later English style, which was added to it in 1820, when it underwent a complete repair; it is adapted for a congregation of about 250 persons. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £25, with £5 fees, and a house and garden. There were formerly numerous castles in the vale of Dunsyre, in one of which the baron-bailie held his courts; several relics of Roman antiquity still remain, and the ancient Roman road through the lands to the camp at Cleghorn may be traced. The entrance to the glen in which the hill of Dunsyre is situated, and which is called the Garvald, forms a communication between the east and west portions of the parish; the route of the army of Agricola through this rugged defile is pointed out by a dyke of earth, and some cairns are yet remaining, in which sepulchral urns of burnt clay, rudely carved, have been discovered.

East Kilbride

KILBRIDE, EAST, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 3810 inhabitants, of whom 926 are in the village, 8 miles (S. S. E.) from Glasgow. This place, distinguished by its affix from West Kilbride, in the county of Ayr, and including the ancient parish of Torrance, is of great antiquity, and once formed part of the see of Glasgow, to which the original grant was confirmed by a bull of Pope Alexander III., in 1178, and by some of his successors. A castle was erected here by Robert de Valnois, about the year 1182; and previously to the reign of Robert Bruce, nearly two-thirds of the lands belonged to the family of Cummin, in whose hands they remained till 1382, when, on their forfeiture by John Cummin, they were granted by that monarch to John Lindsay, of Dunrode, as a reward for his fidelity. The lands of Calderwood were the property of the Maxwell family in the reign of Alexander III., and are still in the possession of their descendant, Sir William A. Maxwell, Bart. Those of Torrance belonged to Sir William Stuart, who, in 1398, was one of the sureties on the part of Scotland for the peace of the western marches, and whose representative, Miss Stuart, of Torrance, is the present proprietor. During the prevalence of the plague in Glasgow, the inhabitants of this neighbourhood used to deposit the produce with which they supplied the city, at a spot on the old Glasgow road, about a mile and a half to the north of the parish, to which the citizens resorted as a temporary market, and which has since retained the name of the Market Hill.

The parish, which takes its name from the dedication of the church to St. Bride or Bridget, is about ten miles in length, and varies from two to five miles in breadth, comprising an area of 22,786 acres, of which almost 18,000 are arable, and the remainder chiefly peat-moss and moorland, affording tolerable pasturage for sheep. The surface is greatly diversified with hills, from 200 to 1600 feet above the level of the sea. The lower lands are watered by various streams, of which the principal is the Calder, flowing for nearly seven miles along the eastern boundary of the parish; the scenery on its banks, at Torrance and Calderwood, is richly diversified, and near Calderwood House the river forms a beautifully picturesque cascade. The Powmillon has its rise in the south-eastern confines of the parish, and, after a course of about two miles, runs into the parish of Avondale, and thence into the river Avon. The Kittock has its source in the northern portion of the parish, in a marsh about two miles from the village of Kilbride, and, after a winding course, falls into the river Cart near Busby. The Cart, after bounding the parish for four miles on the north-west, flows into the parish of Carmunnock near the village of Jackton.

The soil is chiefly a stiff wet clay, which has been rendered more fertile by tile-draining within the last few years; considerable improvement has also been made in the system of agriculture. The crops are, oats, barley, potatoes, and turnips; but the principal reliance is on the dairy-farms, which have been greatly increased, and are under excellent management. Great quantities of cheese, of the Dunlop kind, were formerly sent to the markets of Glasgow and Rutherglen; the quantity annually produced on the several farms being estimated at above 50,000 tons. The dairy produce now consists principally of butter and milk, which are largely sent to Glasgow. Much attention is paid to the treatment of the milch-cows, which are of the Ayrshire breed; and considerable improvement has been made in the breed of cattle generally, under the encouragement of an agricultural society established in 1816, which holds an annual meeting here on the second Friday in June, when a cattle-show takes place. Numbers of sheep, also, are pastured on the hills and moors. The lands have been partly inclosed; and the farm-buildings have been rendered much more commodious than formerly, and are still improving. The plantations are chiefly confined to the grounds of Torrance and Calderwood, and the lands belonging to Glasgow College. Around most of the farm-houses, however, even in the more exposed situations, are large trees of various kinds, the favourable growth of which is attributed to especial care in the preparation of the soil by draining, previously to planting, and to their protection from early injury by the cattle; and it is thought that the subdivision of property has alone operated as an obstacle to the increase of plantations throughout the parish. Coal, ironstone, and limestone are abundant: the coal was formerly wrought, but, being of inferior quality, the works were discontinued, and a better supply is now obtained from the collieries in the neighbouring parishes. The ironstone, which is of a good kind, is wrought by the Clyde Iron Company, who employ about eighty men in their works in the parish. The limestone, which occurs in beds varying from three to ten feet in thickness, and much intermingled with seams of greenstone, is also extensively quarried, and burnt into lime for manure. Freestone is found in several parts; clay of good quality for tiles is also abundant, and Roman cement is made in considerable quantities. The rateable annual value of the parish is £24,190.

Torrance House is a spacious ancient mansion, with modern additions of various dates; in front are the arms of Scotland on a stone removed from the old castle of Mains by Colonel Stuart. It is beautifully situated, and the grounds are embellished with thriving plantations. Calderwood House is an elegant mansion, to which some very tasteful additions have been recently made; the demesne is richly planted, and the grounds command a fine view of the fall of the river Calder, and comprise much beautiful scenery. Lawmoor is a neat modern house, pleasingly situated; and Crossbasket is a handsome residence, principally of modern character, as was also Kirktoun Holm, now dilapidated. Cleughorn Lodge is likewise a good residence. There are several villages in the parish, namely, Kirktoun, or East Kilbride, Maxwellton, part of Busby, and the smaller hamlets of Aldhouse, Jackton, Braehead, Kittockside, and Nerston. The village of East Kilbride was constituted a burgh of barony in the reign of Queen Anne, and had a charter for a weekly market on Tuesday, and four annual fairs. The market has, however, been discontinued for many years; and of the fairs, the only one that is still observed is held on the second Friday in June, for the sale of cattle and sheep. The village is pleasantly situated near the river Kittock, and is neatly built; a subscription library has been established, and there is a post-office subordinate to that of Glasgow, which has a daily delivery. The cotton manufacture is carried on to a considerable extent, affording employment to about 300 of the inhabitants. A savings' bank has been instituted in connexion with the Glasgow National-Security Savings' Bank. Facility of communication is afforded by the road from Glasgow to Strathavon, which passes through the village, and for nearly five miles through the parish; and by other roads kept in good repair, of which one runs from the village to Eaglesham, and another from Busby to Carmunnock. At the southern boundary of Torrance is a bridge over the river Calder, leading to the parish of Glassford.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £280. 8., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £18 per annum; patron, the Crown. The church, which is situated in the village of Kilbride, is a plain neat structure, with a tower surmounted by a spire; it was erected about 1774, and contains 913 sittings, which number, if the whole of the interior were rendered available, might be increased to 1200. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, and the Relief. The parochial school is in the village of Kilbride, and has branches at Aldhouse and Jackton; the master receives a salary of £34, and the fees may be stated to average about £40 per annum. The master of the branch school at Aldhouse has a salary of £8, with a house rent-free, and the master at Jackton, a salary of £8, without a house, the residue of their income being made up with the fees. There is also a school at Maxwellton, supported by Sir William Maxwell. A parochial library has been established, which has a good collection of volumes; and several friendly societies have tended materially to diminish applications for parochial aid. Near Kittockside were some remains of two fortifications, situated respectively on Castle Hill and Rough Hill, about 200 yards distant from each other; but the stones of both have been long removed, and the site of the former planted with trees. Near the latter, an ancient stone celt was found, six and a half inches in length, and three inches in breadth, formed of a coarse kind of ironstone. About a mile to the north of the church are the ruins of Mains Castle, the once stately baronial residence of the Cummins, and the Lindsays, of Dunrode; and the same distance to the south of the village, was the castle of Lickprivick, of which nothing remains except the mound near its site. There were also several cairns formerly in the parish, among which was Herlaw, where urns with fragments of human bones were discovered. One near Mains Castle was remarkable for having at the base a circle of flagstones, set on their edges, and sloping outwards; but the stones were long since removed. Dr. William Hunter, the eminent physician, and his brother, Dr. John Hunter, the distinguished surgeon and anatomist, both of whom were at the head of their profession in London, were born at Long Calderwood, in the parish.

Glasgow

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Glassford

GLASSFORD, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 2½ miles (N. E.) from Strathaven; containing, with the villages of Westquarter and Chapelton, 1736 inhabitants. This parish, which is bounded on the south by the river Avon, is not distinguished by any events of historical importance. It is about eight miles in length, and of very irregular form, varying in breadth from nearly four miles to two at its extremities, and to half a mile at the centre; it comprises 5598 Scottish acres, which, with the exception of about 500 acres, are generally arable, and in a state of profitable cultivation. The surface is uniformly level, though having a gradual ascent to a considerable elevation; and consists partly of dales extending along the lower parts of the parish, towards the south, and partly of moors. The soil is various, being in different parts moss, clay, and light loam: of the moss some small portion has been improved, and of the remainder it is probable that, from the rapid advance of agriculture, the greater part will be brought into cultivation. The principal crops are, oats, potatoes, and turnips; attempts have been made of late to raise wheat, and with tolerable success, but hitherto a small tract only has been sown for that purpose. A considerable portion of land is in pasture, and great attention is paid to the rearing of sheep and cattle, of which the latter are mostly of the Ayrshire breed. There is but little wood; the plantations are chiefly of beech, ash, and fir. The lands are in general well inclosed, except in the moorland districts; and the fences, which are usually of thorn and beech, have of late been much attended to, and are well kept up: the farmhouses, also, many of which are of recent erection, are substantial and comfortable. The rateable annual value of the parish is £6700.

Freestone is found in different parts; near the village of Westquarter are three quarries of excellent quality, and there is also one at a place called Flatt, all of which are in operation, affording employment to several men, and supplying abundant material for building. Limestone is also prevalent, and lime-kilns on an extensive scale have been established in the moors, providing plenty of lime for manure: coal is found in some parts, and at Crutherland works have been opened on a limited scale, for the supply of that estate. A considerable number of females are employed in weaving, and on the bank of the river Avon are a flour and an oat mill. Communication is maintained with Strathaven and other market-towns by means of good turnpike-roads, of which one, from that town to Glasgow, by East Kilbride, and also one to Hamilton, pass through the parish. Glassford is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and patronage of Lady Mary Montgomerie; the minister's stipend is £256. 17. 11., with a manse, and a glebe of nine acres of rich land. The parish church, situated in the village of Westquarter, nearly at one extremity of the parish, was erected in 1820, and is adapted for a congregation of 560 persons. A handsome church, with a spire, was erected on the Church-extension principle in 1839, in the village of Chapelton, about three miles from the parish church. There is also a place of worship for the Free Church. A female society for the promotion of religious objects was formed in 1835, and a parochial library has been established. The parochial school, situated at Westquarter, affords education to a considerable number; the salary of the master, of which a portion has been assigned to the masters of two branch schools, is £25. 13., with £35 fees, and a house and garden. The branch schools are in the village of Chapelton and at Millwell: the former is endowed with £5. 11.; and the latter with £2. 15. 6., a house and garden given by Lady Montgomerie, and the sum of £3 from the parish. About 300 children attend three Sabbath schools, of which one is at Westquarter, and another at Chapelton; and there is also a class of adults. On the lands of Avonholm are the remains of a cromlech, consisting of three upright stones. Within the last few years there were, near Hallhill House, some ruins of an ancient castle, which have been wholly removed by the proprietor; it appears to have been a very strong fortress, capable of containing more than 100 men, and was probably a safe retreat in times of danger. There are still some remains of the original church and steeple in the grave-yard, in which is also a tomb inscribed to William Gordon, of Earlston, in Galloway, who was shot by a party of dragoons on his way to Bothwell Bridge, in 1679.

Gorbals

GORBALS, a parish, in the suburbs of the city of Glasgow, chiefly in the county of Lanark, but partly in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; containing 39,263 inhabitants. This place, originally called Bridgend, from its situation at the extremity of a bridge over the Clyde, connecting it with Glasgow, was anciently part of the parish of Govan, from which it was separated in 1771. At that time it comprised only about fourteen acres, to which were subsequently added the lands of Rea, Little Govan, and the prebend of Polmadie, containing about 600 acres, and also that part of Govan called the Barony, a tract of 400 acres, belonging to the corporation of Glasgow, the patrons of Hutcheson's hospital, and the Trades' house. The whole of the rural district is arable land, with a small proportion of meadow and pasture; the soil is rich, and the moors have been brought into profitable cultivation. The crops are, wheat, oats, potatoes, and turnips; abundance of manure is obtained from the city and suburbs, and every recent improvement in agriculture has been adopted. The population is partly agricultural, but chiefly employed in the various manufactures of Glasgow. The parish, with the adjacent lands, was formed into a burgh of barony and regality at a very early period, and in 1607 was bestowed by the Archbishop of Glasgow upon Sir George Elphinstone, who, in 1611, obtained from James VI. a charter confirming the grant. In 1647, his successor conveyed it to the magistrates and town council of Glasgow, who are still superiors of the burgh and barony, of which the former includes the old parish of Gorbals and part of the parish of Govan, and the latter has been divided into the districts of Hutchesonton, Laurieston, Tradeston, and Kingston, which are described under their respective heads.

The burgh is governed by four bailies, who are annually appointed by the inhabitants, and of whom two may be continued in office for a second year. Their jurisdiction is exercised chiefly in matters of police, in which they are assisted by commissioners under the police statute; they have no corporate rights or exclusive privileges. The police buildings comprise a spacious hall and court-house. A court for the trial of civil causes not exceeding thirty shillings, in which the process is either ordinary or summary, and a court for the recovery of debts not above forty shillings, are held before the bailies occasionally, the town-clerks of Glasgow acting as assessors. The burgh and barony are wholly within the parliamentary boundary of the city; the number of £10 householders is 1635. The rateable annual value of the parish is £150,202. Gorbals is in the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the heritors and the Kirk Session: the stipend is £250; there is neither manse nor glebe, in lieu of which the minister has an allowance of £25 per annum. The church erected in 1771 was subsequently purchased for the district of Kirkfield, and a larger and more commodious edifice built for this parish in 1813, at an expense of £7350; it is a handsome structure, and contains 1460 sittings. There are also places of worship for members of the Free Church, United Secession, Relief Church, and Wesleyans. A school, in which are about 140 children, is supported by the Kirk Session, who pay the master a salary of £50, for the gratuitous instruction of the children of the parish; and there is a school for girls, established in 1833, under a bequest of £2000 by Mrs. Waddell, of Stonefield. The patronage of the girls' school is vested in the magistrates, and the minister and elders of the Kirk Session of Gorbals, with preference to children of the name of Macfarlane; the mistress has a salary of £20, with a house, coal, and candles.

Govan

GOVAN, a parish, chiefly in the Lower ward of the county of Lanark, but partly in the Upper ward of the county of Renfrew; including the village of Strathbungo, and the late quoad sacra district of Partick; and containing 7810 inhabitants, of whom 2474 are in the village of Govan, 2 miles (N. W.) from Glasgow. The name of this parish is generally supposed to have been derived from the two Saxon words god and win, "good wine," applied on account of the superior ale for which the place was celebrated, and which, after being kept for several years, approached in flavour to wine. Some, however, derive it from the Gaelic word gamham, pronounced gavan, and signifying "a ditch," used in reference to the river Clyde, which runs through the parish, and which, in ancient times, was a very narrow stream. The most remote historical information relating to Govan is connected with the removal of Constantine, King of Cornwall, into Scotland: that prince is said to have come from Ireland, after resigning his crown, among the followers of St. Columba, in the year 565, and to have founded a monastery here, of which he became the first abbot. He is supposed to have been martyred by the inhabitants of Cantyre, who thus resisted his attempts to convert them to Christianity, and afterwards to have been buried in his own monastery. Many of the estates of the parish were, in early times, successively made over as gifts to the church. David I. gave the lands of Govan to the church of St. Kentigern, otherwise called St. Mungo, at Glasgow; and in 1136, when present at the consecration of the cathedral of that city, he bestowed a part of the estate of Partick, and subsequently another portion of the same lands, on the see.

These grants, with many others, were confirmed by the bulls of several popes; and Bishop John, who filled the episcopal chair for thirty-two years, made Govan a prebend of Glasgow, the emoluments of which were increased by Herbert, chancellor of Scotland, who presided as Bishop of Glasgow till 1164. The lands were consequently long held by tenants under the bishops and archbishops; but at the Reformation, Walter, commendator of Blantyre, was commissioned to feu the estates, that the tenants, becoming heritable possessors of their several properties, might be encouraged to improve them to the utmost. In 1595, the landholders united in procuring a charter, to confirm this privilege, from James VI.; and from that time the crown became lessor. Afterwards, the college of Glasgow obtained leases of the lands from the crown, and continued to hold them for upwards of a century, to the year 1825, when, in lieu of the leases, a grant was made to the establishment of an annuity of £800, for fourteen years, by George IV. The heritors still pay feu duties to the crown, as coming in place of the archbishops. But the parish is not remarkable solely on account of its ecclesiastical history: as containing the Muir of Govan, it was in ancient times the scene of several important political and military transactions. That this was the case, is evident from the circumstance that the lords who had confederated together in defence of the Protestant religion, after the treaty between the queen regent and the Protestants, at Leith, on July 24th, 1559, suspecting her integrity, resolved to have a meeting with "their kin and friends, upon Govan Muir, beside Glasgow," for the purpose of providing for exigencies. This meeting, however, the queen regent, by the exercise of no common address, contrived successfully to prevent. The moor, also, is famed for the defeat of Queen Mary's army after her escape from the castle of Lochleven.

The parish is about five miles long, and from two to three miles broad. The lands of Haggs, Titwood, and Shields belong to the county of Renfrew: the remainder of Govan is bounded on the north by the parishes of New Kilpatrick, Barony, and Glasgow; by Cathcart, Eastwood, and the Abbey parish of Paisley, in Renfrewshire, on the south; on the east by Barony, Gorbals, and Rutherglen; and on the west by Renfrew parish. The surface is diversified by gentle undulations and acclivities, the extensive and fertile plain in the centre of the parish being succeeded on each side by gradually rising grounds; and the fields are defined by wellgrown hedges, which, with the Clyde, and the numerous and beautiful villas in different directions, constitute an assemblage of very agreeable and interesting scenery. The Clyde, after being joined by the Kelvin, runs through the centre of the parish, and, though anciently rather a narrow stream, is now a channel for ships of 600 tons' burthen, conveying stores from every part of the world into the harbour of Glasgow. The soil in general is of good quality, and produces fine crops of grain, as well as of the best potatoes and turnips. The five years' rotation is followed; and the ground is largely supplied with manure from Glasgow, to which it is chiefly indebted for its fertility: wheat and oats are the chief grain, and are grown in considerable quantities. Many improvements have been made, in remoter as well as more recent times, in the agricultural character of the district; and the celebrated moor, depicted in song as "the carpet of purple heath," now consists of a number of well-inclosed fields, bearing, year after year, as luxuriant crops as are any where to be met with. Similar changes have been effected in other parts, especially about Moss House and Heathery Hall. At White-Inch, the low ground along the north side of the Clyde has been recently enriched, and elevated to a height of from ten to fifteen feet, by soil obtained from the deepening and widening of the river, in consequence of which the worth of the land has been nearly doubled. The rateable annual value of Govan is £30,070.

The subterraneius contents of the parish are chiefly coal, with the strata peculiar to that formation. Several pits are regularly worked, in one of which, at Bellahoustown, on the south of the river, a portion of the layers consists of parrot or cannel coal, which sells at a high price for the purpose of being converted into gas. At Jordanhill and Cartnavel, about fifty fathoms beneath the surface, are sixteen beds of coal, some of them two feet thick, and part being, like the parrot coal, of the finest quality for making gas. Above the gas-coal, as well as at a lower depth, are numerous seams of ironstone, which vary in thickness from five to twelve inches, and are of excellent quality. The collieries of Govan, forming part of the well-known Glasgow coal-fields, have been long wrought; and it is supposed that, beneath the seven principal seams now open, lie others, which will afford a plentiful supply if at any time those at present being worked should be exhausted. The surface just above the coal is composed, in general, of diluvial matter, containing rolled stones, over which are deposits of sand, fine clay, and marine shells. A number of fossil trees were discovered a few years ago at Balgray, standing close to each other in their natural position, though two feet only of the trunks were found attached to the roots.

The population of the parish, which has very considerably increased of late years, from the growing prosperity of Glasgow, is chiefly employed in agriculture and Manufactures, and a large number in coal-pits and quarries. In the village of Govan are 340 handloom weavers; a dye-work employs 118 hands; and at a small distance from the village is a factory for throwing silk, erected in 1824, and which affords occupation to about 250 persons. Near Port-Eglinton is a carpet manufactory, established several years ago, in which 554 persons are engaged; and various other concerns are carried on in different parts, chiefly connected with the cotton manufacture. In the neighbourhood of the collieries are iron-works, containing several blast-furnaces, which produce many hundred tons of pig-iron annually; and near these, a bar-iron manufactory, belonging to the same proprietor, has been constructed, producing upwards of 400 tons weekly. There is a fishery for salmon on the Clyde, the rent of which was formerly £326; but it has fallen, since 1812, to £60 per annum, in consequence of the erection of the numerous manufactories on the banks of the river. In the villages of Govan and Partick are penny-posts, which communicate with Glasgow twice each day. Four great roads pass through the parish, one of which runs from Glasgow to Paisley; another leads to Kilmarnock and Ayr; the third to Port-Glasgow and Greenock, through Renfrew; and the fourth to the West Highlands by the town of Dumbarton. The Glasgow and Johnstone canal also intersects the parish, and a branch of the Forth and Clyde canal touches its northern boundary. A boat, capable of conveying horses and carriages, plies upon the ferry that connects the two parts of the parish at the village of Govan: all steam-boats, also, except those of the largest class, land and take in passengers here. The Pollock and Govan railway joins the mineral fields on the south-east of Glasgow, with that city and the harbour; and the Greenock and Ayr railroad runs for about three miles through the parish of Govan.

The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The temporal immunities of the church came, at the time of the Reformation, into the possession of the college of Glasgow. The Regent Morton had offered the benefice to his uncle, Andrew Melville, principal of the college, on condition that he would not press his views of ecclesiastical polity; but this compromise being refused by Melville, the regent conveyed the temporalities to the college, devolving upon the principal the obligation of serving the cure; and since that time the university has held the patronage. The stipend of the minister is £315, with a good manse, standing near the church, and a glebe of seven acres, valued at £25 per annum. The church, situated at the west end of the village of Govan, and about 100 yards from the Clyde, was built in 1826, and is a plain structure containing 1096 sittings: the design of the tower and spire was taken from the church of Stratford-upon-Avon, in England. The churchyard is raised several feet above the level of the adjacent ground, and is surrounded by a double row of venerable elms. There are places of worship belonging to the Free Church, United Secession, Relief Church, and Roman Catholics. The parochial school is situated in the village of Govan; the master has the maximum salary, with £1. 13. 4. from Glasgow college, £1. 19. accruing from an ancient bequest of Lamb Hill, and £36 arising from a sum of £200, left by Mr. Abram Hill, in 1757. Mr. Hill was educated in the school as a poor orphan, and his gift was invested in ten acres of land, now producing the above sum, for which ten children are taught gratuitously: the master has also £18 fees, a good house, and an allowance in lieu of a garden. An infant school was instituted at Partick, in 1837, on a very extensive scale; and other schools are supported in different parts of the parish. There is a good parochial library, under the management of the trustees of Mrs. Thorm, its founder, and containing above 600 volumes; also a savings' bank, and several friendly societies.

The ruins of the once celebrated Hospital of Polmadie were, at the close of the last century, among the most interesting Antiquities of the parish. This hospital was built at a very remote period, for the reception of persons of both sexes to be maintained for life; and was dedicated to St. John. The church and temporalities of Strathblane were early annexed to it, with part of the lands of Little Govan; and these possessions, with many important privileges, were confirmed to the establishment by Alexander III., Robert Bruce, and several others. In the year 1427, Bishop Cameron, with the consent of the chapter, erected the hospital, and the church of Strathblane, into a prebend, with a provision that the person collated to the office should support a vicar in the parish of Strathblane, and pay four choristers to sing in the cathedral. St. Ninian's Hospital, founded by Lady Lochow, in the fourteenth century, for the reception of persons afflicted with leprosy, partly occupied a piece of ground called St. Ninian's croft, where Hutchesonton, formerly within this parish, but now in Gorbals, at present stands; and close to its site, a number of human bones were not long since found, pointing out the locality, as is supposed, of the lepers' churchyard. On the south of the Clyde, opposite the ferry-house, is an ancient circular hill, thought to have been the sepulchre of some celebrated hero; and in another part of the parish is the picturesque ruin of Hagg's Castle, built in 1585, by an ancestor of Sir John Maxwell, of Pollock.

Hamilton

HAMILTON, a parish, burgh, and market-town, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, including the village of Fernigair, and containing 10,862 inhabitants, of whom 8876 are in the town, 11 miles (S. E. by E.) from Glasgow, and 38 (W. S. W.) from Edinburgh. This place appears to have been distinguished at a very early period, as a royal residence, under the appellation of Cadzow, of which name, however, the origin and signification are now unknown. In 1153, and also in 1289, the monarchs held their courts here; and it continued to be a royal manor till the battle of Bannockburn, immediately after which it was conferred by Bruce upon Walter Fitzgilbert de Hamilton, ancestor of the present dueal family of that name, in whose possession it has ever since remained. In 1445, James II., by charter dated the 3rd of July, created James, then proprietor of the estate, first Lord Hamilton; and erected the manor of Cadzow into a barony, which took its name from the family of its possessor. In 1474, Lord Hamilton married the Princess Mary, eldest daughter of the king, and widow of the Earl of Arran, by virtue of which alliance his descendants were, after the death of James V., recognised by parliament as heirs of the crown in the event of the death of Mary, Queen of Scots. On their accompanying that princess into France, they were created dukes of Chatelherault, in that kingdom; and they were subsequently made dukes of Hamilton by Charles I., and dukes of Brandon, in England, by Queen Anne. Few events of historical importance have occurred to distinguish the town. Of these the principal are conflicts which took place in 1650, between the army of the Covenanters, consisting of 1500 horse under the command of Colonel Kerr, and the forces of General Lambert sent against them by Cromwell, when, after an obstinate resistance, in which Kerr and 100 of his men were killed, the Covenanters were dispersed. In 1679, the army of the Covenanters, again assembling, to the number of 4000 men, encamped at Bothwell moor, between the river Clyde and the town, from which position they were dislodged by the royal army under the Duke of Monmouth, by whom they were defeated with the loss of 1200 of their number who were taken prisoners. In 1774, an accidental fire broke out in the town, which, raging for several days with unabated violence, reduced a considerable portion of it to ashes.

The town is situated on a tract of elevated ground, about a mile from the confluence of the Avon with the Clyde, and considerably to the westward of the ancient town, of which the only remains now existing are a small portion of an out-building belonging to the old hall in the pleasure-grounds of Hamilton Palace. It is intersected by the Cadaow burn, over which is a noble bridge of three arches, and by the roads leading to Glasgow and Edinburgh, on the line of the latter of which an elegant bridge of five arches was erected, over the Clyde, by act of parliament, in 1780: across the same river is also Bothwell bridge, a very ancient structure on the road to Glasgow, of which the date is unknown, and which was recently widened and repaired. A handsome bridge has lately been built over the Avon, on the London road; and across the same river is an ancient bridge of three arches, built by the monks of Lesmahago. The houses are in general well built, and some additional houses have been very recently erected. The streets are lighted with gas by a company of proprietary shareholders, who have erected works for the purpose upon a very elegant plan; and the inhabitants are amply supplied with water conveyed in pipes, from a distance of three miles, by a company whose formation was but recently completed. The public library, supported by subscription, was first opened in 1808, chiefly under the auspices of Dr. John Hume, and at present contains more than 3000 volumes; and a mechanics' institution has been established within the last few years, which is maintained with success. The cavalry barracks occupy a large area surrounded with a wall, and comprise a ridingroom, and an hospital, with stabling and the other usual accommodations. There are three masonic lodges, two gardeners' societies, and a friendly society. Considerable improvements have taken place in the town by the formation of new streets. The post is frequent; and great facility of intercourse is maintained with Glasgow and the adjacent towns by numerous coaches and other modes of conveyance. The market is on Friday; and several fairs are held in the year, which were formerly great marts for lint and wool, but at present are little more than large markets. The market for butchers' meat and the shambles are situated nearly in the middle of the town, on the bank of the Cadzow burn; and the buildings are neat, and well adapted to the purpose. A very considerable TRADE was formerly carried on here in malt, under the direction of the Society of Maltsters, which society is still kept up, though the trade has altogether declined: the linen trade, also, which formed at one time almost the staple business of the place, has been wholly discontinued. The cotton trade, on its first introduction, flourished here for some years, and the town became the principal seat of the district for the weaving of imitation or Scotch cambries; it has been on the decline since 1792, but is still considerable, and affords employment to many of the inhabitants. There are at present about 1300 looms in the town, and fifty in the rural districts of the parish; and many females are engaged in winding and in tambouring. The old lace manufacture, introduced by one of the duchesses of Hamilton, has for many years been decaying, and is now almost extinct; but a new manufacture of lace, introduced some years since by a firm from Nottingham, is at present the most flourishing trade of Hamilton, and gives occupation to nearly 3000 women in the town and neighbourhood. The principal productions are, tamboured bobbinets, and black silk veils of various patterns, with other articles, for which there is a very large and increasing demand, for the markets of England, America, and the British colonies. Many very respectable houses are engaged in this trade, which has, since its introduction by Mr. Galloch, been very much improved by others. Great quantities of check shirts are also made in the town, and exported to Australia; the weaving of stockings is carried on to a limited extent; and the tanning of leather is conducted, though on a very small scale.

The present town, though the greater part of it is comparatively modern, is of considerable antiquity, and, in the reign of James II., was erected into a burgh by charter of that monarch, granted in 1456. In 1548, it was created a royal burgh by Queen Mary; and it continued to enjoy its privileges as such till 1670, when the inhabitants forfeited their rights by disused, and accepted a new charter from Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, by which it became merely the chief burgh of the duchy of Hamilton. At the present time, the government is vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and a council of seven, assisted by a town-clerk and other officers. The provost and bailies are elected annually from the council, four of whom go out of office by rotation, every year, when four new ones are chosen by the inhabitants; the treasurer and the town-clerk are appointed by the corporation. The provost and bailies are justices of the peace, by virtue of their office, and are empowered by the charter to hold courts for the determination of all claims in actions of debt, and for the trial of all criminal cases not extending to life or limb, within the burgh. The magistrates used formerly to hold occasionally a court for the recovery of debts under forty shillings, which court, however, has, on account of a doubt entertained of its legality, fallen into disuse: they still hold weekly courts for the recovery of debts and for civil actions to an unlimited amount, in which the townclerk acts as assessor; and also courts of police for the trial of misdemeanours and other offences not capital. The elective franchise was granted by act of the 2nd and 3rd of William IV.; and the burgh has, from that time, in conjunction with Lanark, Falkirk, Linlithgow, and Airdrie, returned one member to the imperial parliament. The right of election is vested in the householders occupying tenements of the yearly value of £10 and upwards, of whom there are nearly 300. The former court-house and prison, erected at the cross in the reign of Charles I., were lately taken down; and the old town-hall is now disused. A new town-hall with public offices and a prison, of which the first stone was laid in 1834, has been built in lieu, and consists of a distinct range of building, two stories high, comprising, on the ground-floor, three apartments for the sheriff's clerk, with a record-room, and offices for the townclerk, &c., as well as a court-room thirty-seven feet long, and thirty-two feet broad: in the upper story is a large hall for county meetings, with other apartments. Behind is the prison, three stories high, containing fortyfive cells, with a spacious day-room for debtors, and day-rooms for criminals; the lower part is appropriated as a bridewell, and the upper part to debtors. Between the public offices and the prison is the house of the governor, with requisite apartments, and a bath for the use of the prison; the whole surrounded with a high wall, inclosing an area of about two roods. The trades' hall, in Church-street, erected in 1816, is a neat and appropriate building, comprising, in the upper part, a hall for the meetings of the trades, and, in the lower, a well-arranged tavern. There are also a tax, excise, and stamp office. The rateable annual value of the parish is £38,181.

The parish extends for nearly six miles in length, and is almost of the same breadth; it is bounded on the north and north-east by the river Clyde, on the south and south-west by the parish of Glassford, on the east by the parishes of Dalziel, Cambusnethan, Dalserf, and Stonehouse, and on the west by Blantyre. It comprises 14,240 acres of land, of which about 8000 are arable and of good quality, 2000 woodland, and 2040 unprofitable or waste. The surface is generally level, occasionally varied with sloping ridges, but not rising into hills of any considerable elevation. The most fertile lands are the extensive vales on the south-western bank of the Clyde, where the soil is a deep rich loam; and on the north-eastern side of that river are some hundreds of acres which, though belonging to this parish, seem to be more properly within that of Dalziel, which nearly surrounds them. The soil in the middle of the parish rests upon a yellow clay, and is less fertile than that of the valleys near the Clyde; the higher parts consist chiefly of gravel and sand, and are comparatively unproductive. The substrata are principally sandstone rock, appearing in great masses that are from under fifty to more than 300 feet in thickness; whinstone also prevails in some parts, and coal, lime, and ironstone are found. The several strata of coal vary from twenty to twenty-four feet in average thickness. The limestone is of various quality; that obtained in the south-west is excellent, and much used for building and also for manure. The ironstone is found in seams about eighteen inches thick, and also in masses varying from very minute balls to others of several inches in diameter, chiefly in the clay near the strata of coal. Among the crops are, wheat, which is grown on all the lands near the Clyde, and also on some few of the higher lands; and oats of various descriptions, of which the Polish, Essex, and Friesland are predominant. Peas and beans are chiefly raised on the lower grounds. Barley, formerly more largely cultivated, is now seldom sown, except for preparing lands for artificial grasses; but potatoes are produced in great quantities, and of good quality, and a little flax for domestic use. The system of agriculture, though varying greatly in different parts, is generally advanced; there are some considerable dairy-farms, and much attention is paid to the breeding of cattle, in which many improvements have taken place within the last few years. Great improvement has also been made in draining and inclosing the lands; the fences are chiefly hedges, and are mostly well kept up. The pastures, especially in the low lands bordering on the Clyde, are fertile; and attached to a few of the farms, and even to some of the houses in the town, are orchards which are cultivated with assiduous care, and abound with fruit of excellent quality. There are considerable tracts of woodland in the parish, of which the principal are, Bar-Michael wood near Bothwell bridge, Ross wood on the river Clyde, and Hamilton wood on the Avon and Barncluith burn. Forest trees of every kind thrive well, particularly on the lower lands. Oak is very prevalent, and many of the older trees have attained considerable size, several of them measuring thirty-six feet in girth; larch and Scotch fir also thrive; and the banks of the rivers, where they have any elevation, are crowned with luxuriant foliage. Silver and spruce fir are grown with success; and the cedar of Lebanon has attained a tolerable size where it has been planted. Freestone is found in several parts, of a good quality for building; and at present about fifty men are constantly employed in the various quarries.

The principal river is the Clyde, which rises in the heights of Crawford, and enters the parish below the falls at Lanark; it expands abruptly in its course, which is very rapid, into a breadth varying from eighty to 100 feet, and is subject after rains to frequent inundations, by which the lands have at different times been much injured. The Avon also intersects the parish, receiving in its course six tributary streams; and there are three other streamlets or burns, which fall into the Clyde. The Avon rises on the west, near the borders of the county of Ayr, and, after a picturesque course of several miles through the vale to which it gives name, enters the parish at Millheugh bridge, a little below which it flows through a defile bounded on each side by majestic rocks of romantic aspect, rising to the height of 200 or 300 feet, and richly clothed, in some parts almost to their summits, with stately and venerable oaks. Nearly in the centre of this defile are the remains of Cadzow Castle, seated on a rock ascending perpendicularly to the height of 200 feet above the level of the river; and on the opposite bank is the banquet-house of the Duke of Hamilton, built after the model of Chatelherault, from which it takes its name. Not far from the extremity of the chasm, and about three miles from the entrance, are the gardens of Barncluith, the property of Lord Ruthven, rising in terraces from the western bank of the river, which, after forcing its way through this rocky channel, flows along the fertile valleys of the parish, and falls into the Clyde near Hamilton bridge. Of the several tributary streams that intersect the parish the principal are, Cadzow burn, which rises in Glassford, and, after running through the town, falls into the Clyde at a short distance below Hamilton bridge; and Barncluith burn, which joins the Avon about half a mile from the town. The latter burn flows through Hamilton wood, forming in its way five or six falls, varying from five to six feet in height, and adding greatly to the beauty of the scenery. The Clyde and the Avon abound with fish, of which salmon, trout, pike, perch, lampreys, and silver-eels are the most common; and roach are occasionally found. Fish are found also in the streams tributary to those rivers.

Hamilton Palace, the seat of his grace the Duke of Hamilton, situated on the borders of the town, about half a mile to the west of the confluence of the Avon and Clyde, was originally a square tower of very small dimensions. The more ancient part of the present mansion was built in 1590, and nearly rebuilt about the year 1720; considerable additions have been made to the building since 1822, and at present it is one of the most splendid structures in the kingdom. The north front is 264 feet in length, and three stories in height, with a stately portico of duplicated Corinthian columns, each thirty feet high, and three feet in diameter, formed of one single block, and supporting a triangular pediment. To the west is a wing 100 feet in length, appropriated for offices and servants' apartments; and in the rear of the building is a corridor of recent addition, in which are baths and various appendages for the use of the family. The entrance hall is lofty and richly embellished; and all the state apartments, which are extremely spacious, are magnificently decorated, and richly ornamented with sculpture. The dining-room is seventy feet in length and thirty feet wide, and has numerous embellishments, among which is a tripod of exquisite beauty standing on a pedestal of African marble: the other apartments, also, abound with costly vases, cabinets, specimens, of mosaic, gems, and other rare and interesting curiosities. The gallery, which is 120 feet long, twenty feet wide, and twenty feet high, contains an extensive and very valuable collection of paintings by the most eminent masters of the Italian and Flemish schools, and many family portraits. At the upper end is the throne used by his grace when ambassador at the court of Petersburgh, and on one side of it is a bust of Augustus, and on the other one of Tiberius, both of oriental porphyry: at the opposite end of the gallery is a beautiful door of black marble, surmounted by a pediment supported on two pillars of green porphyry. The library contains a large collection of well-assorted volumes, and of prints, the latter alone being valued at £10,000. The stables, built between the palace and the town, are on a scale adapted to the style of the palace; and the grounds abound with stately timber, and with every variety and beauty of scenery. The banquetinghouse of Chatelherault was erected in 1732, by the then duke, after a model of the citadel of that name in France; it is built of red freestone, and decorated with four square towers, and, with its numerous pinnacles and other ornaments, forms a conspicuous object on the eastern side of the river Avon. It contains, among various interesting works of taste, a small but choice collection of paintings; and the grounds, in which is an extensive flower-garden, are tastefully embellished. Earnock House, a seat in the parish, is beautifully situated in its western part, on an elevated site surrounded with flourishing plantations; the house is of modern erection, well adapted for its purpose, and the gardens and pleasure-grounds are agreeably laid out. Ross is a spacious mansion, pleasantly situated in grounds comprehending much pleasing scenery: Nielsland is also a handsome residence, with an extensive demesne; and there are some good houses at Fair Hill, Grovemount, Edlewood, and Fairholme. Of Barncluith the principal feature is the gardens previously noticed; and many of the ancient seats of different branches of the Hamilton family have become farm-houses. The chief landed proprietor is the Duke of Hamilton, who owns more than one-half of the parish.

The parish formerly comprished the chapelry of Machan, now the parish of Dalserf; and the church was granted by David I., together with the lands belonging to it, to the abbey of Glasgow, and was afterwards appropriated to the deanery of that see. The Ecclesiastical affairs are now under the superintendence of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. There are two ministers, of whom the first has a stipend of £313. 13., whereof £2. 15. arise from a bequest for communion elements; and £107. 10. are allowed by the Duke of Hamilton in lieu of manse and glebe: the second minister has a stipend of less amount, with a manse, but no glebe. The old church, which was made collegiate under the influence of the first Lord Hamilton, in 1451, stood in the higher part of the parish, and was endowed for a provost and eight prebendaries, and contained a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary, for which a chaplain was appointed. The building, which was of hewn stone, consisted of a nave, choir, and transepts, of elegant design, and continued till 1732, when it fell into decay, since which time it has been greatly dilapidated, nothing of it now remaining but one of the transepts, still used as a burying-place for the Hamilton family. The present parish church, situated nearly in the centre of the town, is a handsome structure of circular form, erected after a design by the elder Adam, architect; and is adapted to a congregation of 800. A second church in connexion with the Establishment, and capable of containing 1021 persons, has been lately erected; but this building is now in the hands of members of the Free Church, who appoint the minister. The Episcopalians in the neighbourhood have just formed themselves into a congregation. The Roman Catholics have purchased ground for the erection of a chapel; and there are two congregations of the Relief, one in Muir-street, and the other in Brandon-street; also places of worship for Antiburghers, New Light Burghers, Old Independents, and a tabernacle in connexion with the Congregational Union. The grammar school is of ancient origin, and in 1588 was endowed by Lord John Hamilton with £20 Scotch per annum; it affords a liberal education to about forty children, and is under the patronage of the corporation. The master's salary is £34, and the fees on the average amount to £60: the school-house is a venerable building, nearly in the centre of the town. The hospital founded and supported by the Duke of Hamilton, for twelve aged men, was originally built in the old town, but was removed to the present after the erection of the collegiate church; it is an ancient building with a campanile turret, situated near the cross, and was formerly inhabited by the pensioners, but has for some years been let out, and the receipts applied to their use. An hospital was built and endowed in 1775, by William Aikman, Esq., for four aged men, who have each a residence in the building, which is in Muir-street, with a suit of clothes every second year, and £4 per annum. Mr. John Rae bequeathed to the town council a sum of money which, together with some bequests of other benefactors, produces an annual interest of £9.2.4., which, according to the will of the testators, is distributed among poor housekeepers. Mr. Robertson, of this town, and sheriff-clerk of Lanark, in conjunction with Mr. Lyon, left £4 per annum for nine aged men; and Miss Christian Allan, in 1785, left to the Kirk Session £50, in trust for the benefit of the poor. Mr. William Torbet bequeathed to the same trustees an orchard that lets at £10 per annum; and they have also a legacy of £50, the interest of which is divided among five female housekeepers named by them; another legacy of £50, of which only £30 were paid, for clothing the indigent poor; and a donation of £100, of which the interest is applied to the instruction of twelve children.

Among the Antiquities in the parish, the most conspicuous are the remains of Cadzow Castle, previously noticed as crowning the summit of a precipitous rock rising from the river Avon, in Hamilton woods; it has been repaired at various times. The keep, surrounded by a fosse, over which is a narrow bridge leading to the entrance gateway, and a well within the walls, are still in good preservation; and several vaults, with part of the walls of the chapel, may yet be distinctly traced. Darngaber Castle, in the south-east of the parish, supposed to have been founded by Thomas, son of Sir John de Hamilton, lord of Cadzow, occupied an elevated site at the extremity of a point of land near the confluence of two rivulets: the only remains are, portions of the foundations, which appear to have consisted of flat unhewn and uncemented stones; and some vaults, that seem to have been constructed at a much earlier period. At Meikle Earnoch, two miles south of the town, is a tumulus about twelve feet in diameter, and eight feet high, which appears to have been originally of larger dimensions. On opening it several urns were found, containing human bones nearly reduced to ashes; they were all of baked earth, without inscription, but some of them were decorated with mouldings. To the north of Hamilton Palace is a mount supposed to have been in remoter ages a seat for the administration of justice; it is about thirty feet in diameter at the base, and fifteen feet high, and near it is a stone cross four feet high, without inscription. This is thought to have been the market cross of the old town, called Netherton, which, previously to the erection of the present town of Hamilton, occupied this part. In the south of the parish is a portion of a cromlech, consisting of one stone of about six feet, which, having declined greatly from its erect position, was recently replaced by the tenant of a neighbouring farm.

Old Cross hamilton

Hamilton Old Cross

Lanark

LANARK, a burgh, market-town, and parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; containing, with the villages of Cartland and New Lanark. 7679 inhabitants, of whom 4831 are within the burgh, 25 miles (S. E.) from Glasgow, and 32 (S. W. by W.) from Edinburgh. This place, the name of which is of uncertain derivation, is of very remote antiquity, and from the traces of a Roman road leading to the site of its ancient castle, is supposed to have been a Roman station. By some writers, indeed, it is identified with the Colænia of Ptolemy. It appears to have attained to great importance at an early period; and Kenneth II. is said to have assembled here, in 978, the first parliament of which there is any record in the history of the country. It is referred to as a royal burgh in one of the charters of Malcolm IV., by which a portion of its lands was granted to the monks of Dryburgh; and a charter bestowed by William the Lion upon the inhabitants of the town of Ayr, in 1197, is dated from a royal castle at this place, the foundation of which is attributed to David I. The town was burned to the ground in 1244, the houses being chiefly built of wood; but it was soon restored, and not long afterwards it became the scene of a battle between Sir William Wallace and Sir William Heslerigg, the English sheriff, in which the latter, with the forces under his command, was defeated, and driven from the town. The castle of Lanark, with all its dependencies, was given as security for the dower of the niece of Philip, of France, in the treaty negotiating for her marriage to the son of John Baliol, in 1298. It seems to have been garrisoned by the English in 1310, when it was, together with Dumfries, Ayr, and the Isle of Bute, surrendered to Robert Bruce, King of Scotland.

The town is beautifully situated on a gentle acclivity rising to the height of nearly 300 feet above the level of the river Clyde, and consists of five principal streets, with a few others of less note; most of the houses have been rebuilt, and many of them in a handsome style, by which the appearance of the town has been greatly improved. It is paved, lighted, and amply supplied with water at the expense of the corporation; and though there is no regular police establishment, it is watched by constables appointed by the magistrates of the burgh. There are two bridges over the Clyde, affording facility of access to the town. Of these, one, about a mile below Lanark, was erected in the middle of the seventeenth century, and displays no features of architectural importance; the other, two miles from the town, is remarkable for the elegance of its structure. The inhabitants are partly occupied in weaving for the manufacturers of Glasgow and Paisley at their own homes, not only in the town, but in several other parts of the parish: more than 1000 persons, of whom nearly 900 are in the town, derive support from this work, the wages, however, being now greatly reduced. The manufacture of shoes is also carried on to a considerable extent, giving occupation to about 100 persons: the making of lace employs 120 females; there are three breweries upon a moderate scale, and several flourmills. The principal manufacture of the parish, however, is cotton-spinning and weaving, introduced at New Lanark, a handsome village on the side of the river, by Mr. Dale, who, in 1784, erected mills on a very extensive scale, which, till 1827, were conducted with great success by Robert Owen, and are now the property of Messrs. Walker and Company. In these extensive and flourishing works, nearly 1200 persons are regularly engaged. A branch of the Commercial Bank of Scotland is established here, for which a handsome house has been built of freestone. There is also a branch of the Western Bank; and a spacious and commodious inn has been opened for the accommodation of the visiters who resort to this place during the season for visiting the falls of the Clyde, which are much frequented for the beauty and grandeur of the scenery that the river displays in this part of its course. Elegant assembly-rooms have been added to the hotel within the last few years, at an expense of £2400. The markets are on Tuesday and Saturday; the former, which is the chief, is abundantly supplied and numerously attended. Fairs are held on the last Wednesday in May, O. S., for black-cattle; the last Wednesday in July, for horses and lambs; and the last Wednesday in October, and the Friday after Falkirk tryst, for black-cattle and horses. There are also three fairs for the sale of various goods, the hiring of servants, and for pleasure.

Lanark, by charter of Alexander I., was constituted a royal burgh; and the inhabitants, at various times, received charters from his successors, conferring different privileges, down to the reign of Charles I. of England. An act of parliament of 1617 records that, from a very early date, the standards of weights and measures had been preserved here, for the adjustment of all the weights and measures in the kingdom; and these continued to be used till, by the act of 1826, they were superseded by the introduction of the imperial standard. The government of the burgh is vested in a provost, three bailies, a treasurer, and fourteen councillors, assisted by a town-clerk and other officers; they are chosen under the authority, and are subject to the provisions, of the act of the 3rd and 4th of William IV. There are six incorporated trades, the smiths, wrights and masons, tailors, shoemakers, weavers, and dyers, who are under the direction of a dean of guild, appointed by the deacons of the several trades: none but burgesses are eligible as members. The freedom of the burgh is inherited by birth, acquired by servitude, or obtained by purchase or gift of the corporation; the only privilege, however, now enjoyed by the burgesses is that of pasturing cattle on the common lands. The provost and bailies are magistrates within the limits of the burgh, and exercise jurisdiction in both civil and criminal matters; but their power is chiefly limited to holding a bailies' court, for the determination of civil pleas, and to the summary punishment of petty offences against the peace, the townclerk acting as assessor in the bailies' court. All cases of importance are referred to the sessions for the county, which are held here as being the county town. The election of a member for the shire is held here, and Lanark is one of the Falkirk district of burghs: the right of election for the burgh member, previously vested in the burgesses, is, under the Reform act, restricted to the resident freemen, and extended to the occupiers of houses of the value of £10 per annum. The number of registered voters is 160, of whom eightyeight are burgesses, and seventy-two are £10 householders. The county-hall, to which a prison is attached, was erected in 1834; it is well adapted to the purpose, containing good accommodation for holding the courts, and for transacting the business of the county and the burgh.

The parish, which is nearly in the centre of the county, extends from six to seven miles in length, along the bank of the Clyde, and from three to five miles in breadth; it is bounded on the north by the parish of Carluke, on the south by Pettinain and Carmichael, on the east by Carstairs, and on the west by Lesmahago. The surface, though generally elevated, is almost uniformly flat, scarcely rising into hills, though in some parts sloping and undulated. It is intersected by the valley of the Mouss, in a direction from east to west, between the two level tracts of Lee moor on the north and Lanark moor on the south, both of which are nearly 700 feet above the sea. Along this valley the river Mouss flows with a very devious course; and within about a mile of its union with the Clyde, it seems to have worn for itself a channel through the hill of Cartlane, forming a deep ravine about half a mile in length, composed of cragged and lofty masses of precipitous rock, rising on the one side to the height of 300, and on the other of 400, feet above the bed of the river. The Mouss has its source in the northern portion of Carnwath moor, and, though it receives numerous tributary streams in its progress, is but very inconsiderable till, after issuing from the Cleghorn rocks, it spreads into a wide channel between banks which on one side are precipitously lofty, and on the other more gently acclivous, and both crowned with wood. Passing through the Cartlane Craigs, it falls into the river Clyde opposite to the village of Kirkfield Bank. The Craigs abound with prominent features of romantic beauty and majestic grandeur; and the chasm, which in itself is of sufficiently impressive appearance, derives additional interest when regarded as having afforded security, as a place of refuge, to Sir William Wallace in his unwearied efforts to maintain the integrity of his country. Near the lower extremity, an elegant bridge of three arches has been thrown over the chasm, harmonizing with the prevailing character of the spot, and adding much to the beauty of the scenery.

The river Clyde washes the parish on the south and west. Entering from the east, it flows with silent course through a rich and fertile tract of level land, which it occasionally overflows; and deflecting slightly to the south and south-west, it becomes narrower in its channel, and more rapid in its progress, passing over a rocky and irregular bed, between rugged and precipitous banks, till it reaches the bridge of Hyndford. Beyond this it is greatly increased by the influx of the Douglas water, and, proceeding northward, and dividing its stream at Bonnington, is precipitated over a ledge of rocks about thirty feet high, forming a picturesque cascade. After continuing its progress for half a mile, between rocks nearly 100 feet in height, it exhibits another beautiful scene at Corehouse, where its waters descend in a perpendicular fall of eighty-four feet; and advancing with greater tranquillity through the low land at the base, for about a quarter of a mile, it presents a small but picturesque cascade called Dundaf Lin. From this point, the river flows between gently-sloping banks, richly wooded, and in some parts cultivated to the margin of the stream, and for three or four miles pursues an equable and noiseless course to Stonebyres. Here, passing through a ridge of rocks, its waters descend in three successive falls, from a height of eighty feet, into the plain below, along which, for the remainder of its course in the parish, it flows in a tranquil stream, amid lands highly cultivated, and between banks pleasingly embellished with natural wood and luxuriant plantations. Among the chief points of attraction to persons visiting the falls of the Clyde, is the Bonnington fall, about two miles distant from the town, and to which the approach is, for the greater part of the way, through the grounds of Bonnington House: these grounds are tastefully laid out in walks, with seats at all the points from which the finest views of the scenery are to be had, and are open to the public on every day in the week except Sunday. A bridge has been thrown across the northern branch of the stream by the proprietor of the mansion, whence the best prospect of the fall is obtained, with the richly-varied scenery by which it is surrounded. But the Corra Lin or Corehouse fall is the most interesting of the whole. Till lately it was difficult to gain anything like a good view of it; but a flight of steps has been excavated along the face of the opposite rock, leading to a spacious amphitheatre on a level with the bottom of the fall, from which it is seen in all its beauty, combining every characteristic of sublimity and grandeur. The fall at Stonebyres closely resembles that of Corra Lin in all its leading features.

The soil in the western portion of the parish is a stiff clay; along the banks of the rivers, light and gravelly; in some parts, wet and clayey; and in the moors of Cartlane and Lanark, of a hard tilly nature, with some tracts of moss. The whole number of acres has not been ascertained; about 6500 Scotch acres are arable, 600 in common belonging to the burgh, 600 in woods and plantations, 1200 in pasture and waste land, and about forty or fifty in orchards. The crops are, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips: the system of agriculture is improved; much of the land has been drained, and irrigation has been practised to some extent. The farm-buildings, however, are indifferent, and the lands but very partially inclosed. Considerable attention is paid to the dairy and the improvement of the cattle, to which the distribution of premiums by the various agricultural societies has greatly contributed; the cows are all of the Ayrshire breed. Horses, chiefly for draught, are reared for the use of the parish and neighbouring districts. The woods consist of oak, ash, birch, hazel, mountain-ash, alder, and hawthorn; the plantations are of Scotch fir, larch, and spruce fir. On the lands of Lee is a fine old oak of extraordinary size, supposed to be a relic of the ancient Caledonian forest; also a larch of very stately growth, thought to have been one of the first trees of that kind introduced into the country. The substratum is chiefly the old red sandstone, traversed in some parts with whinstone. On the lands of Jerviswood, a vein of quartz alternated with small seams of iron-ore has been found, but not in sufficient quantity to encourage any attempt to render it available. Carboniferous limestone, also, in which petrified shells are found, occurs in some places, and is extensively quarried at Craigend hill: freestone was wrought formerly, but the works have been abandoned. The rateable annual value of the parish is £17,780. Lee, the seat of Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart, is a handsome castellated mansion, situated in a well-planted demense containing some stately timber; Bonnington House is a modern mansion, also in a highly-picturesque demesne. Smyllum and Cleghorn are spacious antique mansions, and Sunnyside Lodge an elegant villa on the steep bank of the Clyde, about a mile and a half from the town.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The stipend of the incumbent is £315; the manse is a comfortable residence, and the glebe comprises about four acres, valued at £16 per annum. The church, situated in the centre of the town, was built in 1777, and has been thoroughly repaired within the last ten years; it is a neat and substantial edifice, and is adapted for a congregation of 2300 persons. There are places of worship in the town for members of the Free Church, the Relief, Independents, and Burghers. The grammar school is supported by the corporation, who appoint the master, to whom they pay a salary of £40, and to an assistant £20 per annum. Connected with this school are twenty-eight bursaries, of which nine were endowed in 1648 by Mr. Carmichael, commissary of Lanark, and the others by one of the earls of Hyndford, by the Mauldslie family, and by Chamberlain Thompson; they are of different values, and, after the payment of the school fees, leave a remainder of £2 or £3 to the holders. A free school in the town was founded by Mrs. Wilson, who endowed it with £1200, for the instruction of fifty children. There is a school supported by subscription; and at Nemphlar and Cartlane are schools of which the masters receive £5 per annum from the heritors, in addition to the school fees. A school at New Lanark is supported by the proprietors of the cotton-works, and attended by about 500 children. The poor have the rents of hospital lands producing £70 annually: Mr. Wilson bequeathed property yielding £32 a year, and the late Mr. Howison, of Hyndford, £700, of which the interest is distributed among the poor not receiving parochial relief. There are several benevolent and friendly societies in the parish, and a savings' bank in the town. The Castle hill near the town, is supposed to have been the site of a Roman fort or station, and a silver Faustina is said to have been found there; but nothing remains either of the Roman fort, or of the royal castle which formerly existed. The site has been ploughed up, and converted into a bowlinggreen. There are some remains of two Roman camps in the vicinity, of which the larger, near Cleghorn House, including an area 600 yards in length and 420 in breadth, is said to have been constructed by Agricola; the smaller, situated on Lanark moor, is still more distinctly to be traced. The Roman road from Carlisle to the wall of Antoninus passed through the area of this camp. Upon an eminence on the bank of the river Mouss are the remains of a lofty tower, of which nothing, however, is known; it gives title to the Lockharts, of Cambusnethan. On a prominent part of the Cartland Craigs are the small vestiges of an ancient stronghold called Castle Quaw; but nothing of the history is recorded. About a quarter of a mile from the town are the venerable remains of the old parish church, displaying traces of an elegant structure, of which a series of six arches that separated the aisle from the nave is in good preservation. The cemetery, also, is still used as the parish churchyard; but the effect of these fine ruins, which had been suffered for a long time to fall into dilapidation, has been destroyed by the erection of an unsightly square tower in the centre, for the purpose of watching the graves. The area has, however, been surrounded with a wall to prevent further dilapidation; and some steps have been taken to restore part of the ruins. Lanark gives the title of Earl to the Duke of Hamilton.

Smyllum Orphanage Lanark.jpg

Smyllum Orphanage, Lanark

Lanark, New

LANARK, NEW, a populous manufacturing village, in the parish, and Upper ward of the county, of Lanark, 1 mile (S. by W.) from the town of Lanark; containing 1642 inhabitants. This place owes its rise to the introduction of the cotton manufacture by Mr. David Dale, who, in 1784, erected extensive mills for spinning and weaving cotton. The village is situated near the river Clyde, and is surrounded by steep and richly-wooded hills, which give it an air of seclusion and retirement; it is regularly and handsomely built, and is inhabited chiefly by persons employed in the cotton-works, which ever since their introduction, have been carried on with increasing success. The first of the mills erected was 154 feet in length, twenty-seven feet in width, and sixty feet in height; and a tunnel nearly 100 yards in length was cut through a rocky hill, to form a passage for the water of the Clyde, by which it was propelled: in 1788 a second mill of the same dimensions, and two others subsequently, were built. The mill first erected was totally destroyed by an accidental fire in the same year, 1788, but was rebuilt in the year following. The works were afterwards carried on with great success by Robert Owen, son-in-law of Mr. Dale, till 1827, since which time they have been conducted by the firm of Messrs. Walker and Company. The machinery employed is of the most improved construction. About 1200 persons are employed in these works, of whom nearly sixty are mechanics and labourers engaged in keeping the machinery in repair: many are children, for whose comfort the company have made every requisite provision. A school has been established in the village, by the proprietors of the works, for the instruction of the children of the factory, of whom a large number attend at stated hours, and receive a course of instruction adapted to their improvement in knowledge and in morals. A benefit society, for the support of its members in cases of sickness, is maintained by small weekly payments; and there are also two funeral societies in the village.

Lanarkshire

Lesmahagow

LESMAHAGOW, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 6 miles (S. W. by W.) from Lanark, and 22 (S. S. E.) from Glasgow; including the villages of Abbey-Green and Turfholm, Boghead, Crossford, Hazelbank, Kirkfield-Bank, Kirkmuirhill, and New Trows; and containing 6902 inhabitants. This place is supposed to have derived its appellation from a Celtic term signifying "garden," and from the name of its tutelar saint, who is said to have had a cell here about the 6th century. In 1140, a monastery was founded by David I. for Tyronensian monks, wherein he placed brethren from his abbey of Kelso, to which it became subordinate: the last remains were removed on the erection of the present church. The Parish is about twelve miles in length and nearly eight in breadth; it is bounded on the north-east by the river Clyde, and comprises 42,840 acres, of which 26,900 are arable, 1500 woodland and plantations, 600 coppice, and the remainder moorland pasture, and waste. The surface is generally elevated, and towards the west and south-west rises into a range of hills, forming a boundary between the counties of Lanark and Ayr; the highest of these hills are 1200 feet above the level of the sea, and all afford excellent pasture for sheep. The chief rivers besides the Clyde are, the Poniel water, which has its source in the south-west of the parish, and, after a course of more than seven miles, falls into the Douglas; the Logan, Nethan, and Kype waters, which rise in the hills on the west, and, receiving numerous smaller streams, join the Clyde; and the Cander, which, traversing the parish for a few miles, flows into the Avon at the parish of Stonehouse. The banks of the Nethan are richly ornamented with plantations, and studded with handsome villas and neat farm-houses. The Kype displays little beauty in its course, and frequently, after rains, descending from the higher lands with impetuous violence, does much damage to the cultivated plains. There are springs of excellent water in various parts, several possessing medicinal properties; many of them issue in streams sufficiently powerful to give motion to mills and machinery. The falls of the Clyde are noticed in the account of the parish of Lanark, which is separated from this parish by the river.

The soil is chiefly clay of a yellow colour, with tracts of lighter and more friable quality, and some portions of gravel and sand; the crops are, grain of all kinds, potatoes, and turnips. The system of husbandry is advanced; draining has been practised to a considerable extent; the lands have been inclosed, chiefly with hedges of thorn, &c., but partly with stone dykes; and the farmhouses have within the last few years been greatly improved. Much attention is paid to the management of the dairy and the breeding of cattle; the cheese made on the several dairy-farms is principally the Dunlop kind. The cattle are of the Ayrshire breed: the sheep, of which large numbers are fed in the hilly pastures, are the old black-faced, these being better adapted to the nature of the soil than the Cheviots. A moderate number of horses, chiefly for agricultural uses, are annually bred, and are in much repute for strength and agility. The woods are judiciously managed, and the plantations are also kept in good order, and are very flourishing; the annual produce from both is estimated at about £700 per annum. The substratum is principally coal, which is wrought in several parts. A fine kind of cannel coal is found at Auchinheath; it occurs in seams varying from ten to twenty inches in thickness, and is sent in considerable quantities to the gas-works in Glasgow and other places. The rocks are chiefly whinstone; limestone of good quality is also abundant, and is extensively worked. Ironstone occurs in several places, but not in such abundance as to have led to the establishment of any works; lead-ore, likewise, is supposed to exist, and several attempts have been made to procure it, but hitherto without success: few minerals, indeed, have been found. Petrified shells are thickly imbedded in the limestone, as well as the fossil remains of various animals. The rateable annual value of the parish is £27,056.

Several handsome seats have been erected by heritors residing on their lands, and all of them are embellished with flourishing plantations: Stonebyres is a very splendid mansion, the oldest portion of which was built in 1398, and the most modern in 1844. The inhabitants of the parish are partly employed in the mines and quarries, and in Glasgow manufactures: many of them reside in the villages, which are all separately described. Fairs for hiring servants are held in March and October, and a cattle-fair in the spring. Facility of intercourse with Glasgow and other places is maintained by good roads, which have been greatly improved within the last few years, and of which the turnpike-road from Glasgow to Carlisle, and that from Glasgow to Lanark, pass, the former for eight, and the latter for about five, miles within the parish. A post has been established; and there is a small library, supported by subscription. The parish is in the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Duke of Hamilton. There are two ministers, the church having been made collegiate at the Reformation: the minister of the first charge has a stipend of £283.4.2., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £20 per annum; the minister of the second charge has an equal stipend, with a manse, but no glebe. The church, built in 1804, is handsome and substantial, and is adapted for a congregation of 1330 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, and for Independents, the Reformed Presbytery, and the Relief. The parochial school affords a liberal education, and is well attended; the master has a salary of £34, with £45 fees, and a house and garden. A school for teaching girls to read and to sew is supported by subscription; it is situated in the village of Abbey-Green, and is attended by about thirty children. In different parts are several other schools, the masters of which receive annual donations from the heritors, in addition to the fees. The poor have the interest of various funded bequests yielding about £100 per annum; the principal is a bequest of £2600 by the late Dr. White, of Calcutta. There are three friendly societies; which have contributed greatly to reduce the number of applications to the parochial funds; and also a savings' bank, duly encouraged. Some slight remains exist of the ancient castle of Craignethen. Roman coins have been found near the site of a Roman road which has, within the last few years, been totally obliterated by the progress of cultivation; and many ancient cairns have been removed, to furnish materials for stone dykes. A Caledonian battle-axe, and about 100 silver coins of Edward I., were dug up in opening ground for laying down a drain.

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Kirkmuirhill Village

Libberton & Quothquan

LIBBERTON, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; including the village of Quothquan, and containing 796 inhabitants, of whom 117 are in the village of Libberton, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Carnwath. This place, of which the name is of uncertain derivation, is situated on the banks of the river Clyde, and comprehends the ancient parishes of Libberton and Quothquan, the latter having been annexed to the former in 1669. The present parish is about seven miles in length, from north to south, and four miles and a half in average breadth, forming a peninsula bounded on the south and west by the Clyde, and on the north by the river Medwin; it comprises 8703 acres, of which about half are arable, 500 woodland and plantations, and the remainder hill pasture and waste. The surface is generally elevated, and along the banks of the rivers level, but in other parts varied with hills, of which Quothquan Law, the highest, is 600 feet above the sea, and covered with verdure to its very summit. The Clyde frequently overflows its banks, adding great fertility to the meadows on both sides; it is of very various depth, being fordable in many places during the summer, though in other parts of the parish its banks have a height of fifty or sixty feet. The Medwin, which rises in the parish of West Linton, has a course of several miles, receives the waters of the North Medwin, and then flows into the Clyde: a branch of it, taking an easterly direction, at Dolphington, forms a boundary between the counties of Peebles and Lanark, and afterwards falls into the Tweed. The scenery is pleasing, and in some parts embellished with thriving plantations.

The soil is various; near the Clyde, extremely fertile; in other parts, comparatively poor. The crops are, oats, barley, bear, potatoes, and turnips: the system of husbandry is advanced; and draining has been practised to a considerable extent, embankments constructed, and much unprofitable land reclaimed and brought into cultivation. The farm-buildings have been also improved, though still inferior to many in other districts of the county; the lands have been inclosed, partly with stone dykes and partly with hedges of thorn, which are kept in good order; and the plantations have been extended. Attention is paid to the management of dairy-farms, and large quantities of butter and cheese are produced for the supply of the neighbouring markets; the cows are all of the Ayrshire breed. The sheep fed in the pastures are a cross between the Cheviot and the Leicestershire. The plantations, made chiefly on the lands of Cormiston, Shieldhill, Huntfield, and Whitecastle, are larch, and spruce and Scotch firs, intermixed with various kinds of forest-trees, and are in a very thriving state. The landed proprietors' residences and tastefully-embellished demesnes add greatly to the beauty of the scenery. The village, which is pleasantly situated, has facility of intercourse with Carnwath, the nearest market-town, by tolerably good roads; and the turnpike-road from Peebles to Glasgow passes for nearly a mile through the parish. Quothquan is also pleasantly situated. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4730. It is in the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, and in the patronage of Sir Macdonald Lockhart, Bart.; the minister's stipend is £226, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum. The church, erected in 1812, is a neat edifice adapted for a congregation of 350 persons. The parochial school, situated in the village of Libberton, is well attended; the master has a salary of £30, with £20 fees, and a house and garden. There is also a school at Quothquan, the master of which has £2. 10. annually, being the interest of a bequest, and £6 from house-rents, in addition to the school fees. A friendly society, established in 1811, has contributed to reduce the number of applications to the parish for relief. Near the village are the remains of a circular camp, situated on the extreme edge of a barren moor, about half a mile from the Clyde; it comprises an area of about an acre and a half, and is surrounded by a double intrenchment with a deep fosse.

QUOTHQUAN, a village, in the parish of Libberton, Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 2 miles (S.) from Libberton village; containing 160 inhabitants. This place, also written Couth-Boan, and signifying "the beautiful hill," derives its name from Quothquan Law, a delightful hill in its vicinity, elevated about 600 feet above the river Clyde, and green to its very summit. The lands around formerly constituted a parish, which was united in 1660 to the parish of Libberton: the church is demolished. The village is pleasantly situated on the eastern side of the Clyde, which separates the parish from that of Covington. On the Law is a large rough stone, hollowed in the middle, and called "Wallace's Chair," in which, it is said, Sir William Wallace held conferences with his followers before the battle of Biggar.

New Monkland

MONKLAND, NEW or EAST, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 11 miles (E. by N.) from Glasgow; containing, with the market-town of Airdrie, the late quoad sacra parish of Clarkston, and the villages of Arden, Ballochney, Greengairs, Riggend, and Wattstown, 20,511 inhabitants, of whom 3567 are in the rural portions of the parish. This place originally formed part of an extensive district which, in the middle of the 12th century, was granted by Malcolm IV. to the abbey of Newbottle, and thence obtained the appellation of Monkland. The abbots held their courts for the barony in a chapel at Kipps, which was destroyed at the time of the Reformation, but of which there were some remains till the close of the last century, when they were obliterated by the plough. Towards the middle of the 17th century, the barony of Monkland was divided into two portions, of which that to the east was erected into a separate parish, and called New Monkland, to distinguish it from the western portion, which has the appellation of Old Monkland. New Monkland is bounded on the north by the river Luggie, and on the south by the Calder water; and is nearly ten miles in length and seven miles in extreme breadth; comprising about 35,000 acres, of which the greater portion is arable and in good cultivation, and the remainder pasture and waste. The surface, though not diversified with hills of any remarkable height, rises gradually from the shores of the Luggie and the Calder to an elevation of almost 700 feet above the level of the sea, forming a central ridge that extends throughout the whole length of the parish from east to west. The only rivers are, the Luggie, which has its source in Dumbartonshire, and, flowing westward along the boundary of the parish, falls into the Kelvin at Kirkintilloch; and the Calder, which, issuing from the Black loch, on the eastern border of the parish, forms its southern boundary, as already stated, and flows into the Clyde near Daldowie House, in the parish of Old Monkland. The spacious reservoir of the Monkland and the Forth and Clyde canals, is situated partly in this parish, and partly in the adjoining parish of Shotts; it is a large sheet of water, of very irregular form, and about 300 acres in extent. The Monkland canal, also, begun in 1770, and since greatly extended and improved, runs near the border of this parish. This canal, which is about twelve miles in length, thirty-five feet wide at the surface, but diminishing to twenty-six feet at the bottom, and six feet in depth, receives a considerable part of its supply from the river Calder, and, by means of two locks near Airdrie, and eight near Glasgow, is raised 113 feet above the level of the Forth and Clyde canal. Terminating at Glasgow, where it communicates by a cut with the Forth and Clyde line, it affords ample facilities of conveyance for the mineral and agricultural produce of the parish.

The soil in the north and west is a strong rich clay, alternated with portions of lighter and drier quality, and in the central and eastern portions mossy, but not unfertile; the chief crops are, grain of all kinds, peas, beans, potatoes, and turnips, with the usual grasses. Flax was formerly raised in great abundance, but for some years has been little grown. The system of husbandry has been gradually advancing, and several tracts of waste land have been brought into profitable cultivation; ploughing matches take place annually, at which prizes are awarded to the successful competitors; and most of the more recent improvements in the construction of implements have been adopted. The cattle, of which considerable numbers are reared in the pastures, are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, and great attention is paid to their improvement; but the principal source of prosperity to the parish is its mineral produce. There are scarcely any plantations, except around the houses of the landed proprietors; and the want of timber, both for ornament and shelter, is severely felt. Among the principal substrata are whinstone and sandstone, which are largely quarried for the roads and for building purposes; and limestone is also found in several places, but is not much wrought, lime from Cumbernauld, and dung from Airdrie, being almost exclusively used for manure. Coal and ironstone of excellent quality prevail almost in every part in great abundance, and are in most extensive operation. The seams of coal range from three to nine feet in thickness; the principal varieties are the Ell, the Pyotshaw, the Humph, the Main coal, and the splint; and smithy-coal and blind-coal are wrought in various parts. There are not less than forty different collieries at present in operation, the produce of which is conveyed partly by the Monkland canal or by railway to Glasgow, and thence to the Highlands and the coasts of Ireland; and partly by the Kirkintilloch railway to Kirkintilloch, and thence by the Forth and Clyde canal to Edinburgh. The ironstone, of very rich quality, occurs partly in balls, and partly in seams, of which the most usual are the muscle and the black-band; the black-band is by far the most valuable, and is generally found at fourteen fathoms below the seam of splint-coal. There are as many as ninety iron-mines in operation; the produce is sent to the works of the Carron Company, the Clyde, the Calder, the Gartsherrie, Chapel-Hall, and other foundries. The working of these mines and collieries affords constant employment to thousands of the industrious classes, and has contributed greatly to the increase of the population, and to the growing prosperity of the adjoining districts. To the mineral wealth of this parish may, indeed, be attributed the existence of the flourishing town of Airdrie, and of the numerous thriving villages that have recently sprung up within its limits, and of which all the inhabitants are more or less occupied either in the mines and collieries, or in the various works to which they have given rise. The rateable annual value of New Monkland now amounts to £35,967.

The principal mansion-houses are, Airdrie House, the seat of Sir William Alexander, superior of the town of Airdrie; Monkland House, the property of the Hon. William Elphinstone; Rochsoles; the house of Auchingray; and Easter and Wester Moffat. The town of Airdrie, the village of Clarkston, and the villages of Greengairs, Riggend, Wattstown, and others, are all described under their respective heads. In addition to the great numbers of persons engaged in the collieries and mines, many of the inhabitants are employed in various branches of trade and manufacture; the principal is that of cotton, for which there are extensive mills at Airdrie and Clarkston. A considerable number of people are occupied in hand-loom weaving at their own dwellings, for the manufacturers of Glasgow; and there are also a brewery and a distillery, both conducted on a very extensive scale. There is a post-office at Airdrie, which has three deliveries daily; and two fairs, numerously attended, and amply supplied with cattle and with different kinds of merchandise, are held there annually, in May and November. Facility of communication is maintained by the turnpike-road from Edinburgh to Glasgow, which intersects the southern part of the parish from east to west; by the recently formed road from Stirling to Carlisle, which crosses it from north to south; by the Monkland canal; and by the Ballochney, the Garnkirk, Kirkintilloch, and Slamannan railways. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is £265. 7. 11., with a manse, and a glebe valued at £11. 10. per annum; patrons, the heritors and elders. The church, situated on an eminence in the western district of the parish, was built in 1777, and substantially repaired in 1817, and is a neat plain structure containing 1200 sittings. Several additional churches have been erected within the last few years, in the burgh of Airdrie and at Clarkston; and to all of them quoad sacra districts were till lately annexed by act of the General Assembly. The members of the Free Church have places of worship; and there are some for members of the United Secession, a Relief congregation, Cameronians, Independents, Baptists, and Wesleyans, and a Roman Catholic chapel. The parochial school is attended by about fifty children; the master has a salary of £30, with a house and garden, and the fees average £30 per annum. Schoolrooms have been built by subscription at Airdrie, Clarkston, Greengairs, Coathill, &c.; but they have no endowment, and the masters only of Clarkston and Greengairs have dwelling-houses rent free. The New Monkland Orphan Society is supported by subscription, and affords clothing and instruction to eighty children. Near Airdrie is a mineral well, of which the water is strongly impregnated with iron and sulphur; it was once in high repute, but is at present little used.

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Airdrie County Buildings

Old Monkland

MONKLAND, OLD, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark, 3 miles (S. W. by W.) from Airdrie; containing, with the late quoad sacra parishes of Crosshill and Gartsherrie, and numerous populous villages, 19,709 inhabitants, of whom 4022 are in the rural districts. This place was included in the district granted by charter of Malcolm IV. to the monks of Newbottle Abbey, and thence called Monkland, of which the greater portion, soon after the Reformation, became the property of Sir Thomas Hamilton, who was created Earl of Melrose, and subsequently Earl of Haddington. The lands passed from the Haddington family to the Clellands, from whom they were purchased in 1639 by James, Marquess of Hamilton; and in the reign of Charles II. they were sold by Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, to the college of Glasgow. Monkland was divided about the year 1650 into two distinct parishes,called respectively Old and New Monkland; the former comprehends the western, and the latter the eastern portion of the district. Old Monkland is bounded on the west by the river Clyde, and is about ten miles in length and four miles and a half in extreme breadth; but the number of acres has not been ascertained. The surface is generally level, in few parts attaining any considerable elevation; on the west it slopes gently towards the Clyde. There are several tracts of moss, in the aggregate nearly 1500 acres; and about 1200 acres in plantations. The principal rivers are, the Clyde, which forms the western boundary of the parish, but is not here navigable for vessels; and the North Calder, which rises in the adjoining parish of Shotts, and, bounding this parish on the south, flows between banks richly wooded into the Clyde at Daldowie. There are several burns that intersect the parish in various directions, forming tributaries to the Clyde; and also some lakes, of which Bishop loch, covering about eighty, Woodend loch fifty, and, Lochend forty acres of ground, are the most considerable. They all abound with pike, of which some are of very large size. The ancient bishops of Glasgow are supposed to have had their summer residence on the side of Bishop Loch, whence the name.

The soil along the banks of the Clyde and Calder is a strong clay, by good management resembling loam, and producing luxuriant crops of wheat; towards the centre is a light sand, well adapted to oats and potatoes; and to the north the soil is mossy, though in some parts, greatly improved. The crops are, wheat, oats, potatoes, peas, beans, turnips, and flax, which last was formerly raised in much greater quantities than at present. The system of agriculture has been greatly improved under the auspices of the New Farming Society, established here about the year 1830; the farm houses and buildings are in general substantial and commodious, and the lands are well inclosed with fences of thorn. The cattle are of the Ayrshire, and the horses of the Clydesdale breed, and very great attention is paid to their improvement: numerous prizes have been awarded at the Highland Society's cattle-shows for specimens of live-stock reared in the parish. The substrata are, coal, ironstone, and various other minerals, of which there are extensive beds also in the adjoining parish of New Monkland; and the working of the several mines, and the establishment of iron-works, have led to the erection of numerous villages. Among the principal of these in this parish, are, Calderbank, containing 1064, Carmyle 238, Causeyside 367, Dundyvan 1298, New Dundyvan 2202, Faskine 408, Greenend 502, and Langloan, containing 1111 inhabitants. The late quoad sacra parishes of Crossbill and Gartsherrie contained, the former the villages of Baillieston, Barachnie, Craigend, West Merrystone, and Swinton; and the latter, Coatbridge, Coatdyke, Gartcloss, Gartsherrie, East Merrystone, and Summerlee. Some of the principal coal-works are at Gartsherrie, where five seams of coal are found, in beds varying from two to four feet in thickness. At Gartcloss are three seams, of which the lowest is thirty fathoms in depth; at Gartgill, three seams, at forty fathoms lowest depth; at Gunnie, seams of every kind, at depths varying from twenty-seven to fifty fathoms; and at Drumpellier, four seams, at nearly similar depths with the preceding. At the Calder iron-works are two mines, one forty and the other 100 fathoms deep, containing all the varieties. At Palace-Craig ironstone is found alternating with the coal, in seams from twelve to eighteen inches thick; at Faskine, where the first mine was opened, splint-coal was found in 1791, at a depth of seventy-five fathoms; and at Whiteflat, where are two pits at the depth of forty fathoms, black-band ironstone occurs in seams of eighteen inches. There are also coal-works at Netherhouse, Easterhouse, Mount Vernon, and Rosehall.

The ironstone occurs in various parts of the parish, in seams of different thickness and quality. The black-band ironstone is found in the lands of Monkland House, and also at Faskine, Garturk, Lower Coates, and Dundyvan, in seams from fourteen to eighteen inches thick, yielding from thirty to forty per cent. of iron; these seams occupy an area of nearly ten square miles. At Palace-Craig, the upper black-band occurs in seams of eighteen inches, at sixteen fathoms below the splint-coal, and is of rather inferior quality. At Airdrie, in the parish of New Monkland, the seams of ironstone vary from two to four feet in thickness; the produce is chiefly wrought in the iron-works in this parish. Red freestone is quarried at Langloan; white freestone of very fine texture is wrought at Souterhouse, Garturk, Summerlee, Coatdyke, and other places, and is used chiefly in the manufacture of iron; and whinstone is quarried at Rawmone and Easterhill. There are considerable remains of ancient wood; and the numerous plantations, which are in a thriving condition, add much beauty to the scenery of the parish, and, combining with the high state of cultivation and the luxuriance of the meadows and pastures, give to it the appearance of an extensive garden. There are many handsome houses belonging to the proprietors, and to others connected with the mines and works in the parish and its immediate vicinity.

The chief trade is the iron manufacture, for which several very extensive works have been established here, of which the number is progressively increasing, the abundant supply of coal and other facilities for the purpose having long since rendered this place the principal seat. The Gartsherrie works, belonging to Messrs. W. Baird and Co., till lately employed not more than eight blast furnaces for smelting ore; but that number is now doubled. The Dundyvan works, the property of Mr. J. Wilson, have seven furnaces; the works belonging to the Monkland Iron Company have five furnaces in operation; and the Clyde iron-works, the property of James Dunlop, Esq., have five furnaces, of which at present four are in operation. The Summerlee works, belonging to Messrs. Wilson and Co., employ five furnaces, to which two are about to be added. The Langloan works, the property of Messrs. Miller and Co., have five furnaces in operation throughout the whole year; and the Calder works, belonging to Messrs. W. Dixon and Co., situated on the border of Bothwell parish, have six furnaces in operation. The quantity of pig-iron manufactured annually in these several establishments is in the aggregate 270,000 tons, in the production of which nearly 800,000 tons of coal are consumed. The Monkland Iron Company are erecting mills and forges for the manufacture of bar-iron, on a scale sufficient for the making of 230 tons of malleable iron weekly; and the Dundyvan Company are carrying out similar arrangements on a still more extensive scale. The steam-engines used in these works are of very great power; and the introduction of the hot-blast instead of the cold-air in the management of the furnaces, by which the consumption of fuel is greatly diminished, is now generally adopted in the works. This important discovery, first made by Mr. Sadler, in 1798, was carried into partial effect by the Rev. Mr. Stirling, of Kilmarnock, who obtained a patent in 1816. Improvements were made in the process by J. B. Neilson, Esq., of Glasgow, in 1828. Mr. Dixon, of the Calder iron-works, subsequently discovered that, by the adoption of the hot-air blast, common pit-coal might be substituted for coke, previously used; and the Messrs. Baird, of Gartsherrie, by some improvements on Mr. Neilson's process, ultimately brought the invention into its present practical efficiency.

The nearest market-town is Airdrie, on the confines of the parish; and facility of communication is afforded by excellent roads, of which the turnpike-road from Edinburgh, by Airdrie, to Glasgow, passes through the parish. There are also four railways for the conveyance of goods and passengers, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch, the Ballochney, the Garnkirk and Glasgow, and the Wishaw and Coltness. The Monkland and Kirkintilloch railway connects the rich coal districts in this parish and New Monkland, within ten miles of the city of Glasgow, with the Forth and Clyde canal near the town of Kirkintilloch: the act was obtained in 1824; and the original capital, £32,000, was increased by £20,000 under an act in 1833. In 1839, the capital of the company was further increased to £124,000, for the purpose of re-laying the line with heavy rails, and otherwise providing for the augmented traffic: the undertaking is now in full operation. By an act passed in July, 1843, additional lines are authorized to be completed, and the company empowered again to enlarge their capital to £210,000. The Wishaw and Coltness railway extends from the termination in this parish of the Monkland and Kirkintilloch railway, southward, to the estates of Wishaw, Coltness, and Allanton. The Monkland canal to Glasgow passes nearly through the whole length of the parish. This canal was begun in 1770, and since 1792 has undergone various improvements; its length, from Woodhall, about two miles south-east of Airdrie, to the basin at Glasgow, is twelve miles; and it communicates by a lateral cut with the Forth and Clyde canal at Port-Dundas. By means of eight double locks at Blackhill, near Glasgow, and two single locks, of eleven and a half feet each, near Airdrie, the canal is raised 113 feet above that of the Forth and Clyde, and 273 above the level of the sea; it is thirty-five feet wide at the surface, twenty-six at the bottom, and has six feet water. An extensive basin was lately formed at Dundyvan, for the shipment of coal and iron by the canal from the Wishaw and Coltness and the Monkland and Kirkintilloch railways; and boats to Glasgow take goods and passengers twice every day. The Garnkirk Railway Company, also, run trains of steam-carriages many times daily, affording conveyance for a part of the produce of the mines and iron-works; and at Coatbridge, within a mile and a half from the parish church, is a post-office. The revenue of the canal is estimated at £15,000, and that of the railways at £20,000 per annum.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr. The minister's stipend is about £300, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £16 per annum; patrons, the heritors and Kirk Session. The parish church, erected in 1790, is a plain substantial structure, containing 902 sittings. Churches, to which quoad sacra parishes were till lately annexed, have been erected at Crosshill and Gartsherrie; and there are places of worship for members of the Free Church and Relief. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £31, with a house and garden, in addition to the fees. Connected with the parochial school are three branch schools, of which the masters have each a salary of £6.15.11. per annum, with moderate fees; there are also schools supported exclusively by the fees. At Coatbridge is a very flourishing academy; and in the village of Langloan is a library of about 500 volumes. In digging the foundation for the buildings of the Clyde iron-works, great numbers of human bones were found covered with slabs of stone, and some earthen urns containing bones and ashes. Urns perfectly smooth, and of a red colour, were found in 1834, in a plantation near Blair-Tummock.

Coatbridge Cross

Coatbridge Cross

Pettinain

PETTINAIN, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; containing 416 inhabitants, of whom 80 are in the village, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Lanark. The name of this parish is supposed to have been derived from the old British word Peithynan, signifying "a clear space of flat ground," in reference to a level tract stretching along the north of the village. It is stated in ancient records that the district was originally covered with wood, and that David I. gave to "Nicolas his clerk," a carucate of land in the forest here, with the right of common-pasture. This portion is thought to have been cleared of the wood after being thus assigned, and to have in consequence fixed the name of the place. No events of any consequence are recorded in connexion with Pettinain; but in the southern vicinity of the parish are the remains of a very extensive and well-fortified camp, adjacent to which are a large number of out-works, where many urns and other relics of antiquity have been found; and although no traces exist to identify this camp with any particular people, it evidently indicates the spot to have been the scene of some important military operations. The lands of Westraw, in the parish, were awarded to Sir Adam Johnston in the time of James II., King of Scotland, for his vigorous efforts in suppressing the rebellion of the Earl of Douglas. These were afterwards alienated, and came into the possession of the Earl of Hyndford, at whose death they passed, for want of male issue, into the family of Anstruther, an ancient branch of which had married a sister of the earl.

The parish is about three miles long and two and a half broad, and contains 3060 acres. It is bounded on the north by Carstairs and Carnwath parishes, on the south by Covington, on the east by Libberton, on the west by Carmichael, and on the north-west by a small part of Lanark. The figure of the parish, which stretches along the banks of the Clyde, is very irregular. The climate is damp and variable: in the spring the pastures and blossoms suffer severely from the east winds; while the plantations of young wood generally take an inclination north-eastward from the action of violent, and sometimes long-continued, south-west winds. A ridge runs from Covington, in a north-western direction, until it terminates in the western extremity of Pettinain, where it rises 500 feet above the bed of the river; the highest peak is Cairn-gryffe, and the other parts are called Westraw and Swaites hills, from the names of the respective places to which they are opposite. Pheasants and hares are seen in great numbers in almost every direction. The Clyde, rising twenty-five miles southward, in Crawford parish, flows with great impetuosity till it arrives within a few miles of this parish, when it assumes a totally different character; becomes deep and smooth; and, slowly approaching by numerous meanderings, quietly enters at its south-east boundary. Afterwards changing its course by a flexure from east to west, it runs along the northern limit of the parish, and, within about half a mile of its departure, rushes with considerable force over a bed of rocks. It is well stocked with trout, perch, and pike, the last of which make great depredations on the two first, and attain in some cases to the length of three feet, and the weight of upwards of twenty pounds.

The soil varies considerably, being in the vicinity of the river a mixture of soft clayey mould, running to a depth of several feet, and resting upon a gravelly subsoil; while in the neighbourhood of the village, as well as in several other parts, it is a rich loam; and in other places, again, is mixed with large quantities of gravel and sand. The haugh or holm land immediately close to the river is very fertile, and frequently inundated by the rising floods. On the high parts, which are covered with heath and bent, the soil is a poor and thin earth with a clayey or tilly subsoil. The number of acres under tillage is nearly 2320; and about 580 are waste or in pasture. The crops include potatoes, turnips, and hay; and about 580 acres are appropriated to the growth of oats and barley, the chief grain here cultivated, the high elevation of the land above the sea rendering it unfavourable to wheat. The manures used are chiefly those obtained from the farm, many cattle being kept, especially on the dairy-farms; and in very few instances is bone-dust employed. The character of the husbandry is in general good; and great care is taken in preparing the ground by ploughing and harrowing, and in the proper application of the manure; the result of which is unusually heavy crops, especially of turnips, which are grown in large quantities. Ayrshire cattle are preferred on the dairy-farms, which are very numerous, and managed in the best possible manner. Within the last twenty-five years, covered drains to the length of almost twelve miles, and from five to seven and a half feet deep, have been constructed. In addition to these, there are nearly 5000 yards of open drains; and surface drains to a great extent have been formed, in order to prepare the ground for plantations, ninety-two acres of which on hilly and waste land have been made within the last twenty years by one proprietor, besides others in different parts of the parish; amounting in the whole to about 160 acres. The farm-buildings are an exception to the general improvements that have taken place, being inferior in many respects to those of neighbouring districts; but in most cases the inclosures and stone fences are excellent, and the latter have been recently augmented by an addition of 4840 yards. The land is the property of three families, one of whom, of Carmichael House and Westraw, holds almost the whole. The rocks in the parish are mainly felspar-porphyry and sandstone, the former of which supplies an excellent material for the construction and repair of roads: limestone is wrought in two places, but only on a small scale, and used for burning into lime. The rateable annual value of Pettinain is £3235.

The chief mansion-house is that on the estate of Westraw, which has been at various times enlarged and improved, and is now a good and commodious building, belonging to Sir Windham Carmichael Anstruther, Bart., the representative of the ancient family of Carmichael. It has plantations of almost all the trees common to the county, and is encompassed with extensive grounds in the highest state of cultivation. With the exception of a few persons employed in hand-loom weaving, the population is entirely agricultural. About one-fifth reside in the village of Pettinain; the rest are scattered throughout the parish, and their intercourse is principally with the town of Lanark, to which they have easy access by a bridge over the Clyde at Hyndford. The town of Carnwath, only three miles distant, was formerly the chief place of resort; but the obstruction often raised by the swelling of the Clyde turned the traffic to Lanark. Since this change occurred, however, a large float has been placed at the Carnwath ferrystation, which is impelled by machinery, and safely conveys passengers and carriages at a small toll levied to defray the expense, £500. The turnpike-road leading from Carlisle to Stirling passes along the western boundary of the parish, and, as well as the parish roads, is kept in very good repair. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Lanark and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; and the patronage belongs to Sir W. C. Anstruther. The stipend of the minister is £162, of which £47. 6. are received from the exchequer, with a comfortable manse built in 1820, and a glebe of ten acres, valued at from £25 to £30 per annum. The old manse, still a good and substantial, but small house, serves as offices to the present residence. The church, which is a very plain building, is conveniently situated, is in good repair, and seats about 234 persons: the belfry, supposed to have belonged to an older church, bears the date of 1696 and the inscription, "Holiness becomes God's House." There is a parochial school, in which Latin and all the ordinary branches of education are taught; the master's salary is £32, with the interest of 500 merks left in 1708 by the Earl of Hyndford, and fees amounting to about £17, as well as a house and garden. The only relic of antiquity of note is the camp already mentioned, situated on a lofty moor; it covers about six acres, and is nearly of circular form. Its walls appear to have been very lofty and massive, and composed of large uncemented stones; and adjoining is a deep moss, in which is a fort, formerly connected with the camp. In the parish are also a number of tumuli.

Rutherglen

RUTHERGLEN, a parish, burgh, and market-town, in the Lower ward of the county of Lanark, 2½ miles (S. by E.) from Glasgow, and 43 (W. by S.) from Edinburgh; containing, with the West late quoad sacra district, 6513 inhabitants, of whom 5623 are in the burgh. This place is popularly supposed to have derived its name from Reutherus, King of Scotland, the fifth in descent from Fergus I., founder of the Scottish monarchy, and who, after a retirement of some years, during which time he greatly augmented and concentrated his forces, made a successful attack upon the Britons, from whom he wrested a considerable portion of his territories, of which they had gained possession. From the reign of this monarch, about two centuries before the Christian era, little is recorded of the history of the place till the year 1126, when the inhabitants obtained from David I. a charter conferring upon the town the privileges of a royal burgh. It appears to have been at that time superior in importance to Glasgow as a place of trade, and to have included within its limits the ecclesiastical demesnes of that city till the year 1226, when Alexander II. granted to the Bishop of Glasgow a charter of exemption from certain services due to the corporation of Rutherglen. From this period its trade and consequent prosperity continued to decline, and that of Glasgow to increase, till in 1692 the business was almost wholly transferred to the latter place, which has since been progressively advancing in population and wealth. The castle of Rutherglen was remarkable for its strength, and in 1306 was seized by Edward I., King of England, who had taken upon him to arbitrate between Bruce and Baliol, then competitors for the Scottish crown; but it was retaken by Bruce in 1313, and continued to exist as a fortress of importance till after the battle of Langside, when it was burned by the Regent of Scotland. The building was however afterwards repaired and enlarged, and became the seat of the Hamiltons, of Elistoun, on whose decline it was suffered to fall into decay; and it has by subsequent dilapidations been levelled with the ground. During the disturbances in the reign of Charles I., considerable excitement prevailed in this place; and on the celebration of the restoration of Charles II., a party of the inhabitants, in resentment of the severities practised on the Covenanters, committed some excesses, which appear to have originated the battle of Bothwell-Bridge, when they were defeated by the Duke of Monmouth.

The town is pleasantly situated on the Clyde, over which is a stone bridge of five arches, communicating with the suburbs of Glasgow on the opposite shore, and towards the erection of which the inhabitants contributed £1000, in consideration of its being tollfree. Over the same river, a bridge of timber has recently been constructed, opening a new line of road from the collieries in the parish, and facilitating the conveyance of the produce to Glasgow. The town consists chiefly of one spacious street extending in a direction from east to west, regularly formed and wellpaved, and of a smaller range of buildings parallel with the former, and called the Back-row, from both of which diverge several lanes leading to the principal farms in the parish. Towards the east are vestiges of ancient foundations, from which it is supposed that the town was once of greater extent than at present. The trade formerly consisted, to a considerable extent, in the supply of salmon for the French ports, in exchange for which brandy was received; but this branch has declined in consequence of the construction of a weir lower down the river, which interrupts the navigation above the bridge of Glasgow. The principal trade at present is in coal, from the several mines in the parish; in cotton spinning, weaving, and printing; and the weaving of muslins for the Glasgow manufacturers. The market is on Saturday; and fairs are held on the first Friday after March 11th, first Friday after May 4th, first Tuesday after June 4th, first Friday after July 25th, and first Friday after August 25th; the Wednesday before the first Friday in November, and on that Friday; and the first Friday after November 25th. The charter bestowed on the inhabitants by David I. in 1126 is recited by several grants of his successors down to the reign of James VI., who in 1617 confirmed all previous gifts, and clearly defined the boundaries and the privileges of the burgh. The government was vested by these charters in a provost, two bailies, a treasurer, and a council of eleven, to which last an addition of thirty others, to be elected by the council, was prescribed by an act in 1670, all of whom should vote in the election of the magistrates. The town is now subject to the provisions of the Municipal act, and the number of councillors is eighteen: the provost and bailies are chosen annually by the council; and the town-clerk is appointed in the same manner, but holds his office for life, and acts likewise as assessor. The magistrates exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction; and during the last twenty years, the average has been annually about fifty cases of the former, and twenty of the latter. There are four incorporated trades, the smiths, wrights and masons, tailors, and weavers; and all of them have the privilege of exacting a fee on the admission of a member. The burgh at the Union was allowed to send one member to the English parliament, in conjunction with those of Glasgow, Renfrew, and Dumbarton; but on the passing of the Reform act, Glasgow was separated from the number, and Kilmarnock and Port-Glasgow added. The right of election is vested in the persons occupying houses of the annual value of £10 and upwards; the number of voters is 180.

The parish extends for about three miles along the southern bank of the Clyde, and is something more than a mile and a quarter in average breadth; the surface towards the river is generally level, forming plains of very considerable fertility, but in other parts is intersected with hills and narrow glens. The soil is on the whole good, and the system of agriculture improved; manure is plentifully used, and the lands are chiefly arable, but there are some extensive dairyfarms, and much attention is paid to the breed of livestock. Considerable progress has been made in draining and inclosing the lands, which are divided among numerous proprietors, whose handsome mansions and grounds add greatly to the scenery and interest of the parish. Of these, Farme, the residence of Mr. Farie, once the property of some of the earls of Selkirk, and subsequently that of the Flemings, and Hamiltons, is a very ancient castle of much strength, the embattled walls of which still remain as a memorial of the baronial castles of former times; it has been recently enlarged by its proprietor, who has raised an embankment to preserve his land from the inundation of the Clyde. Coal is abundant in the parish, and eleven mines have been opened, of which one is wrought by Mr. Farie on his estate at Farme, two at Eastfield, one at Stonelaw, and one at Hamilton-Farme; together they afford employment to more than 500 persons. Ironstone, but in very small quantities, is found in some of these mines; and there are also some quarries of good freestone, in which nearly a hundred persons are engaged. About 200 persons are employed in printing cotton, for which there are two establishments, one in the town, and one at Shawfield, at which latter place, also, is a bleachfield that became the property of Messrs. Gowdie, who converted it into an establishment for dyeing Turkey-red; it is now occupied by Messrs. White as a chemical laboratory. A cotton-mill was erected in 1800, which has been enlarged, and is now conducted by Mr. Mc Naughton; and on the lands of Farme are two extensive concerns for dyeing Turkey-red, conducted with much success. In addition to those employed in the several works, about 300 of the inhabitants are occupied in weaving muslin for the Glasgow manufacturers at hand-looms in their own dwellings. The rateable annual value of the parish is £21,295. It is within the presbytery of Glasgow and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the patronage of the Corporation and certain heritors and feuars. The minister's stipend is £280. 8. 5., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £14 per annum. The old church was of great antiquity, and prior to the year 1199 was, together with the churches of Cathcart and Mearns, given to the abbey of Paisley by Jocelyne, Bishop of Glasgow. It was connected with some transactions of importance in Scottish history, being celebrated as the scene of a negotiation of peace between England and Scotland, concluded within its walls in 1297, and also as the place in which Sir John Monteith entered into a convention for betraying Sir William Wallace into the power of the English. Of this building, however, nothing remains but the tower, near which is the present church, erected in 1794, in good repair, and adapted for a congregation of 800 persons. There is a chapel of ease also containing 800 sittings, to which an ecclesiastical district was till lately annexed called West Church, having a population of 2483: the minister receives a salary of £100 per annum. In the town are likewise a Free and a Relief church, the latter capable of receiving a congregation of 950. The burgh school affords a liberal education to the children of the parish; the master, who is appointed by the town-council, has a house and garden rent-free, and a salary of £16. 13. 4. from the funds of the burgh, in addition to the fees. There are also Sabbath schools, in which nearly 400 children are instructed; and several benefit societies. Traces may be seen of a tumulus at Gallowflat, which was anciently surrounded by a ditch, and to the summit of which was an ascent by a paved road about six feet wide. Near it were found two copper vessels, on the handles of which was inscribed the word "Congallus;" a stone coffin was also found in a tumulus on Hamilton-Farme, long since levelled with the ground. The cross of the burgh, ornamented with sculptured devices, of which the most conspicuous was one of our Saviour riding upon an ass, was demolished by a mob during the reign of Charles I. Rutherglen gives the title of earl to the ducal family of Hamilton.

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Rutherglen Fair Day

Shotts

BERTRAM-SHOTTS, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; including the villages of Harthill, Omoa-New-Town, Sallysburgh, and Shotts-Iron-Works; and containing 3861 inhabitants, of whom 751 are in the village of Shotts-Iron-Works, 5 miles (E. by S.) from Holytown. This place is generally supposed to have derived its name from a famous robber called Bartram de Shotts, who, in ancient times, signalized himself by his depredations, and was eventually killed near the site of the present church. The whole of this extensive parish, except Blair-mucks and Murdostown, belonged to the Hamilton family, from the year 1378 to 1630, when the Marquess of Hamilton disposed of the larger part of the barony. Not far from the mansion of Murdostown formerly stood the abbey of St. Bertram; but no portion of this ancient establishment is now to be seen. The Parish, which was once part of that of Bothwell, is nearly a parallelogram in form, and is ten miles long, and eight broad, and contains 25,434 acres; it is bounded on the north by the North Calder, which separates it from East Monkland and Torphichen, and on the south, by the South Calder, which divides it from the parish of Cambusnethan. The surface is tolerably level throughout, except in the middle quarter, where it is diversified by elevations, among which are, the Hirst, the Tilling, and the Cant hills. The climate is more than ordinarily salubrious, which induced the celebrated Dr. Cullen, who commenced practice in the parish, to say, that Bertram-Shotts was the Montpelier of Scotland. The rivers connected with the district are the North and South Calder, with a few small burns not of sufficient importance to demand notice; and there is a loch called the Lily, in which are found common trout and an excellent species of red char.

The soil is for the most part clayey, except on the banks of the rivers, where the loamy kind prevails; nearly two-thirds of the land are arable, and the rest, with the exception of a small proportion of wood and common, is unsheltered moor, annually covered with the blossom of the heather-bell. About 1000 acres are under wood, consisting of Scotch fir, spruce, and larch, all which thrive well: formerly the Scotch fir was the only kind attended to. The cows are in great repute for their superior stock, the improvement of which has been greatly promoted by the establishment of an agricultural society; and the horses, which are of the Clydesdale breed, are famed for their strength and symmetry. Every kind of farming-stock has been greatly improved within the last thirty years; and much waste land has been reclaimed by means of draining and digging, for which two prizes, some time since, were awarded by the Highland Society of Scotland, to two gentlemen in the parish. The state of the farm-houses, however, is generally below that of buildings of this class in parishes where agricultural improvement has made much progress, although they are far better than formerly, and are undergoing a gradual change. The rateable annual value of the parish is £19,910. The parish forms a portion of the great coalfield of Lanarkshire, and its carboniferous and mineralogical productions are extensive and various, the two grand general divisions of its subterraneous contents being the igneous and sedimentary rocks. The northern half of the land consists almost entirely of the trap, or common greenstone; the other half is the coal-bed, which consists of the splint coal, the parrot or cannel coal, the smithy coal, and the Shotts-Iron-Works first and second coal. In some parts, is a very fine ironstone, above the coal, and in others, a considerable quantity of limestone, lying at a great depth beneath the coal, with a succession of 147 different strata between them. There is an abundant supply of fire-clay of various kinds, in the carboniferous division of the parish, lying over the coal, and large quantities of it are used, for making bricks for blast and air furnaces; one of the strata has been wrought for a considerable period, and is several feet in thickness, though the portion which is worked, in the middle of the stratum, is not more than about three feet deep.

Among the principal residences are, Murdostown House, belonging to Sir T. Inglis Cochrane; Easter Moffat, a handsome modern edifice in the Elizabethan style; Craighead House, Fortissat, and Shotts House. Sub-post-offices have been established at the villages of Sallysburgh and Shotts-Works, and there are annual fairs, chiefly for the sale of horses and cattle, on the third Tuesday in June and November (O. S.), both of ancient date, being held by a warrant granted by James VII., in 1685, to the Duke of Hamilton. The parish contains two iron-works, of which one, in the south-eastern quarter, designated Shotts works, is not only adapted for the smelting of iron-ore, for which there are three furnaces, but has connected with it an extensive foundry, and a large establishment where steam-engines of a superior kind for both land and water are constructed. At the other establishment, called the Omoa iron-works, situated in the south-west part of the parish, three furnaces are also in effective operation. These works, which together employ about 1500 persons, have contributed to a large increase in the population; and by the circulation of several hundreds of pounds weekly, in the form of wages, great changes and improvements have taken place in the general appearance of the neighbourhood, particularly through the formation of roads and the cultivation of the land. The ecclesiastical affairs are subject to the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr; the patronage belongs to the Duke of Hamilton, and the minister's stipend is £267. 11., with a substantial and commodious manse, built in 1838, and a glebe of nearly 44 acres, in which are two seams of coal. The church, the position of which is central, and on an elevated site, was built in 1820, and has 1200 free sittings. There is a place of worship belonging to the Associate Synod; also a parochial school, in which the classics are taught, with the usual branches of education, and of which the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., about £28 fees, and a house. Belonging to the Shotts iron works, is also a school; another, called Murdostown school, has an endowment of £19 per annum, assigned by Sir Thomas Inglis; Harthill school was endowed by the late James Wilson, Esq., with £500; and another is supported by Mrs. Robert Haldane. There are two circulating libraries, in one of which, at the Shotts works, the collection of books is very superior; and the poor have the benefit of a bequest of £500, left by Thomas Mitchell, a native of the place. Gavin Hamilton, the historical painter; John Miller, professor of law in the university of Glasgow, well known to the public by several learned publications, and who was buried at Blantyre, not far from Shotts; and Dr. Matthew Baillie, physician to George III., and brother of Joanna Baillie, the authoress, were all natives of the parish. The Rev. James Baillie, father of the doctor, was minister of Shotts.

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Shotts Kirk

Stonehouse

STONEHOUSE, a parish, in the Middle ward of the county of Lanark; containing 2471 inhabitants, of whom 1794 are in the village, 7 miles (S. S. E.) from Hamilton. This place is said to have derived its name from the residence of the principal proprietor, a mansion of stone and lime, situated near the site of the present village, and which, being at that time a kind of building of rare occurrence in this part of the country, was considered of sufficient interest to give name to the parish. The parish is about six miles in length and three in breadth, and is bounded on the east by the Cander stream, on the west and on the north by the river Avon, and on the south by the Kype; it comprises 7560 acres, of which 300 are woodland and plantation, and the remainder chiefly arable land. The surface is tolerably even, though gradually rising from the centre towards the north and south; its appearance has been greatly improved by numerous plantations of modern growth, which in some parts, and more especially on the lands of Mr. Lockhart, of Castle Hill, include much ornamental timber. There are also some few remains of ancient trees of venerable aspect, though the greater portion has long since been cut down for various purposes; and around the churchyard are some fine planetrees of luxuriant growth. The soil is generally rich and fertile; considerable improvements have taken place in draining, and a moss of considerable extent has been reclaimed and brought into profitable cultivation, producing abundant crops of oats, barley, wheat, ryegrass, and clover. There was also a considerable extent of marsh at Gozlington, which has been improved, and converted into meadow land. The Avon, in its course by the parish, formerly abounded with salmon; but few have been found of late, their passage being intercepted by the increased elevation of a mill-dam. This river flows with great impetuosity, being obstructed in its progress by huge masses of stone, which, falling from its precipitous and rocky banks, have in some parts choked up its channel: after receiving the waters of the Kype and Cander, it takes a northern direction, and falls into the Clyde near Hamilton. The crops raised in the parish include oats, barley, wheat, potatoes, and turnips, with a small portion of flax; the lands are well inclosed, partly with stone, and partly with hedges of thorn and beech. Freestone abounds in the parish, as well as whinstone of sufficient quality for mending the roads; limestone of a good description is also prevalent, and is worked for manure. In the fissures of the vein of limestone are fine specimens of mica, interspersed with globular particles of a bright yellow colour. Ironstone has been discovered in thin beds above the limestone, in detached nodules of good quality, but not in quantity sufficient for working; and coal is also found, but is worked only for burning the limestone. The rateable annual value of Stonehouse is £7079.

The village, which is situated nearly in the centre of the parish, and to which the approach is facilitated by a handsome bridge over the Cander water, consists chiefly of one principal street about a mile in length, and some smaller streets, which are macadamized, and kept in neat order. The houses are mostly but one story high, and covered with thatch; but several of larger dimensions, and roofed with slate, have been recently erected, and two new streets have been formed, adding materially to the appearance of the place, which is rapidly increasing in population and importance. The weaving of silk, cotton, &c., is carried on to a considerable extent, affording employment to about 500 persons, who work with hand-looms at their own dwellings; and there are a large mill for a coarse kind of cotton yarn, and three establishments for making draining-tiles. A number of persons are also employed in the line and coal works. The new turnpike-road from Edinburgh to Ayr passes through the village, and, communicating with the road from Glasgow, affords great facility of intercourse with places in the vicinity. Fairs, chiefly for black-cattle and wool, are held at Martinmas, in May, and in July, which are numerously attended; and a post-office has been established. The parish is in the presbytery of Hamilton and synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and patronage of Robert Lockhart, Esq.: the minister's stipend is £250. 5. 2., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £20 per annum. The church, a handsome modern structure, surmounted by a well-proportioned spire, is situated in the centre of the village, and is adapted for a congregation of 900 persons. There are places of worship for members of the Free Church, and a congregation of the United Secession. The parochial school affords a liberal education to the children of the parish; the master has a salary of £28 per annum, with £18 fees, and a house and garden. Mr. Thomas Hamilton, of London, bequeathed £4. 10. per annum to be distributed in prizes to the most forward of the scholars. There are two other schools in the village, and two at Sandford, which are chiefly supported by subscription, the masters having only the schoolrooms rent free. On the banks of the Avon are the remains of two ancient castles, situated on the summits of steep rocks which overhang the river; they are called respectively Coat or Cat Castle, and Ringsdale Castle, but nothing of their history has been preserved. At the junction of the Avon and Cander waters, are the remains of an encampment called the "Double Dykes;" it comprises an area of nearly four acres, completely surrounded by masses of perpendicular rock, except in one point between the channels of the rivers, which approach within fifty yards of each other, where the narrow interval was artificially fortified by three lofty dykes, of which some parts are still entire. Near the banks of the Avon, also, a Roman tumulus was discovered, in which were found numerous urns containing burnt bones and ashes; several of them were in good preservation, and ornamented with flowers elegantly carved, and various other devices. Not far from the same spot are remains of the Roman road from Ayr to Castle-Cary, which in some places is still entire, and is formed of large stones rudely placed. Roman urns have also been found in tumuli that have been opened in other parts of the parish.

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Stonehouse Church

Symington

SYMINGTON, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark, 3½ miles (S. W.) from Biggar; containing 488 inhabitants, of whom 213 are in the village. This place derived its name, originally "Symon's Town," from its ancient proprietor, Symon Loccard, who, having in the reign of Malcolm IV. obtained a grant of the lands, fixed his residence here, and also erected a chapel, which subsequently became the parish church, on the erection of the lands into a distinct parish, about the year 1232. The parish is bounded on the north and east by the river Clyde, and is about three miles in length and a mile and a half in breadth, comprising an area of 3400 acres, of which 2400 are arable, meadow, and pasture, and 140 woodland and plantations, and the remainder waste. The surface is diversified with several hills of considerable elevation, on one of which, called Castle Hill, was anciently a fortification, the site of which is now covered with trees. Towards the west is the mountain of Tinto, which rises to a height of 2400 feet above the level of the sea, and has on its summit a pile of stones vulgarly said to be the remains of a Druidical temple: on the south-east side, at no great height above its base, are the ruins of the castle of Fatlips, consisting of part of one of the walls, of great thickness, and the stones of which are so firmly compacted as to be incapable of separation. From the top of this mountain is obtained a view extending over sixteen counties.

The arable land is chiefly along the banks of the river; the pastures reach to the summit of the mountain. The soil in the lower lands is fertile, and great improvement has taken place in the system of agriculture; favourable crops of grain of all kinds, with potatoes, turnips, and hay, are produced; and the high lands afford excellent pasture. The cattle are chiefly of the Ayrshire breed, and much attention is paid to their improvement; the horses, of which few more are kept than what are required for agricultural purposes, are of the Clydesdale breed. The plantations are principally Scotch fir and larch, which latter seems more congenial to the soil; and around the village are some hard-wood trees of several kinds. The village is pleasantly situated at the foot of Castle Hill; a few of the inhabitants are employed in weaving for the Glasgow manufacturers, but the population of the parish is chiefly agricultural. Facility of intercourse with the neighbouring towns is afforded by the Carlisle and Stirling road, which passes through the parish; and the road from Lanark to Biggar runs along a bridge over the Clyde, which connects the parish with that of Culter. The rateable annual value of Symington is £2385. Its ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £158. 6. 8., one-half of which is paid from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15 per annum: patron, Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart, Bart. The church is an ancient structure, repaired in 1761, and enlarged in 1820, and which again underwent a thorough repair in the year 1845; it contains 300 sittings, of which thirty are free. The parochial school is well attended; the master has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with a house and garden, and the fees average about £15 per annum. There is also a parochial library. Remains of several camps exist in the parish, but they are in a very imperfect state. In a tumulus near the base of the mountain of Tinto, were found the bones of a human skeleton without the skull; and as the grave was not long enough to have contained an entire body, it is supposed that it suffered decapitation previous to its interment. In a tumulus about a quarter of a mile distant were found two urns, one of which was broken by the labourers, and the other is now in the possession of Mr. Carmichael, of East End. About fifty yards to the north of the village, are traces of the foundations of the ancient seat of the Symingtons; the moat is still nearly entire.

Walston

WALSTON, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; containing, with the village of Ellsrickle, 493 inhabitants, of whom 101 are in the village of Walston, 4 miles (N. by E.) from Biggar. The ancient name is supposed by some to have been Welston, and derived from the numerous springs here, of which one became celebrated for its efficacy in the cure of cutaneous diseases; other writers think it was Waldefs-town, from its proprietor, Waldef, brother of the Earl Cospatrick. The lands of Walston, together with those of Eldgerith, now Ellsrickle, once constituted a barony co-extensive with the present parish, and forming part of the lordship of Bothwell, which, from repeated forfeitures, belonged at different times to various proprietors. On the forfeiture of James Hepburn, Earl of Bothwell, in 1567, the barony was granted by James VI. to John, Earl of Mar, by whom it was sold to the Baillie family, from whom, together with the patronage of the church, the manor of Walston was purchased by George Lockhart, Esq., of Carnwath, whose descendant, Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart, Bart., is the present proprietor. The lands of Ellsrickle are divided among several proprietors, of whom the principal is John Allan Woddrop, Esq. The parish is bounded on the north by the small river Medwin, and is about three miles in length and from two to three in breadth, comprising an area of nearly 4500 acres, of which 2900 are arable, 1100 meadow and hill pasture, and about 40 woodland and plantations. The surface is in some parts gently undulating, and diversified with hills in other parts, rising rapidly. Towards the east is Black-Mount, 1600 feet above the level of the sea: from this the surface declines gradually to little more than half that height, forming on one side the valley of the Medwin, and on the other the gradually expanding vale of Ellsrickle. On the northern side of Black-Mount are the springs from which the parish is supposed to have derived its name, and of which the principal are, the Buckwell, the Silver wells, and Walston well. They afford a copious supply of excellent water, and form numerous burns that flow into the Medwin, which, after passing the parish in a direct channel sunk for that purpose, pursues a winding course to the westward, and falls into the river Clyde.

The soil in the valleys is a brown mossy loam, alternated with sand; on the slopes of the hills, of a more tenacious quality; and in some parts, a deep and rich loam. The crops are, grain of all kinds, turnips, potatoes, and hay; the system of agriculture is in a highly advanced state, and the rotation plan generally adopted. The lands have been greatly improved by furrow-draining; and the lower grounds, which were in many parts subject to inundation from the winding course of the Medwin, have been protected by diverting its waters into the straight channel already alluded to constructed in 1829. The dairy-farms are under good management; and the butter and cheese, of which latter the Dunlop kind is becoming more general, find a ready market in Edinburgh. The cows are of the Ayrshire breed, with an occasional cross with the short-horned; about 400 are pastured on the several farms, and on the hills and other lands are about 700 sheep. The plantations are chiefly larch and Scotch fir; but from the small number of acres that have been planted, great want of shelter is still experienced, to the manifest injury of the crops. The hills are mostly of the trap-rock formation, with superincumbent strata of sandstone; and limestone, found in some parts of the parish, was formerly quarried and burnt for manure; but the difficulty of obtaining coal has rendered it more profitable to bring lime from a distance. No minerals are now met with; but there are some caverns on the Borland farm, near Walston well, which indicate an attempt at mining, supposed to have been made by a company of Germans in the reign of James V. The rateable annual value of the parish, according to returns made for the purposes of the Income tax, is £2137.

The village of Walston, situated on the west of the Black Mount, has been for some years declining, and is now very small: the village of Ellsrickle, however, on the south side, has been gradually increasing, and, under the auspices of the proprietor, Mr. Woddrop, who has laid out allotments for building, may soon be of considerable extent. The situation of both villages is pleasing, but the latter has the advantage of some thriving plantations in its vicinity. A few of the inhabitants of both are employed in hand-loom weaving for the cotton manufacturers of Glasgow. Facility of communication is afforded by the turnpike-roads from Dumfries to Edinburgh, and from Carnwath to Peebles, which pass through the parish. The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale. The minister's stipend is £157. 10. 10., of which more than half is paid from the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe valued at £12 per annum: patron, Sir Norman Macdonald Lockhart. The church is a neat plain structure, chiefly erected about the close of the last century, but having an aisle of more ancient date in the later English style, with a window of elegant design; it is in good repair, and contains 190 sittings. The parochial school is situated at Walston: the master has a salary of £30, with a house, and an allowance of £2. 2. in lieu of garden; the fees average £12 per annum. There is likewise a school at Ellsrickle. A parochial library was commenced in 1814, and has a collection of about 500 volumes, principally on religious subjects. There is also a friendly society, established in 1808, and which has contributed greatly to diminish the claims on the funds for parochial relief. A tripod of brass was a few years since discovered by the plough, on the farm of Borland; it is supposed to be a relic of Roman antiquity, and celts have also been found in different parts. Stone coffins have frequently been dug up; and near the village of Ellsrickle was lately found one containing an urn which, on exposure to the air, crumbled into dust. On the farm of Cocklaw are the remains of a circular camp, consisting of two concentric circles of mounds and ditches; the inner circle is twenty-seven yards in diameter, and between it and the outer circle is an interval of five yards.

Wandell & Lamington

WANDELL and LAMMINGTOUNE, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; containing, with the village of Lammingtoune, 358 inhabitants, of whom 122 are in the village of Lammingtoune, 6½ miles (S. W.) from Biggar. These two ancient parishes, which were united in 1608, comprise the baronies of Wandell and Lammingtoune. The former barony, anciently Quendall or Gwendall, signifying "the White Meadow," and called also Hartside, belonged in the reign of Alexander II. to William de Hertisheved, sheriff of Lanark in 1225, and in that of David II. to William de Jardin, in whose family it remained till the time of Charles I. of England, when it was conferred upon William, Marquess of Douglas. From him it descended to his son, Archibald, Earl of Angus, who in 1651 was made Earl of Ormond, and whose descendant was by a new patent created Earl of Forfar and Lord Wandale and Hartside; and on the death of the second Earl of Forfar, who fell in the battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715, it reverted to the Duke of Douglas, whose grand-nephew, Lord Douglas, is the present proprietor. The barony of Lammingtoune became, by marriage with the heiress about the year 1296, the property of the Scottish hero Sir William Wallace, whose only daughter conveyed it by marriage to William Baliol or Baillie, ancestor of Alexander D. R. Cochrane Wishart Baillie, Esq., the present laird. In 1715, a number of the Highlanders who had taken arms in favour of the Pretender, under the command of the Earl of Wintoun, refusing to accompany their general into England, dispersed in two companies of about 200 each, one of which, retreating to the hills of Lammingtoune, was assailed by the peasantry of this place under the conduct of their lairds, made prisoners, and, after being confined in the parish church for the night, marched off to Lanark.

The parish extends along the banks of the river Clyde, on the west and south-west, for about nine miles; and is from three to four miles in breadth; comprising an area of 11,300 acres, of which 6100 are in the barony of Wandell, and 5200 in that of Lammingtoune. The surface is boldly diversified with hills of mountainous elevation, but easy of ascent, and of verdant aspect, affording excellent pasturage for sheep. These hills vary in their shape, some of them being finely undulated, and others more abrupt and conical, with portions of barren grey rock protruding above the turf; among them are Hillhouse hill and Lammingtoune hill, the former, near the church, having an elevation of 500 feet, and the latter, to the east of the village, rising to the height of 600 feet, above the level of the surrounding plains. There are several tracts of flat land, watered by streams descending from the hills. Of these, the Wandell, Hartside, Hackwood, and Lammingtoune burns are the most copious; they all form tributaries to the Clyde, which abounds with trout of superior quality and large size, similar to those in Loch Invar and Loch Leven. The hills furnish game of various kinds, and partridges and grouse are especially found in great plenty. Deer were formerly very numerous in the barony of Wandell, from which circumstance that district was called Hartside; but the ancient forest which was their accustomed haunt has long since disappeared, and there is scarcely any wood now to be found in the Wandell district. In Lammingtoune, however, are some hundreds of fine old trees, chiefly about the village, and on the banks of Lammingtoune burn.

Of the lands, about 2300 acres are arable, and about 900 meadow and pasture; the soil is mostly dry and fertile, and the rotation plan of husbandry in general use. The chief crops are, oats, bear, barley, potatoes, and turnips; the dairy-farms are under good management, and the produce is sent weekly to the Edinburgh market. The sheep, of which more than 6000 are fed on the pastures, are of the black-faced and Cheviot breeds, principally the former; the cows are the Ayrshire, with an occasional mixture of the Teeswater; and the horses, of which more are kept than are used for agricultural purposes, are of the Clydesdale breed. The farm houses and offices are comparatively of an inferior order, and covered with thatch, except in the district of Lammingtoune, where the principal buildings are covered with slate. Considerable progress has been made in draining and inclosing the lands; the fences are chiefly stone dykes, with some few hedges of thorn. The rateable annual value of the parish is £3668. The village of Lammingtoune is pleasantly situated on the north and east side of the Lammingtoune burn, and on the road from Biggar to Dumfries. It had formerly a market and two annual fairs, for which a charter was granted to Sir William Baillie in the reign of Charles I.; but they have been long discontinued. The houses are generally ancient, and of very indifferent appearance; but the surrounding scenery, enriched by the bending trees on the banks of the burn, is pleasingly picturesque. Near the burn is a handsome cottage for the gamekeeper of the lord of the manor; and in the village is a spacious house which was originally intended for an inn to accommodate the visiters who might frequent the troutstreams of this place, which afford excellent sport to the angler. Facility of communication is maintained by good roads that pass through the village and parish; by bridges over the several burns; and a bridge of two arches over the Clyde, on the road to Abington and Crawford. A post-office has been established in the village, under that of Biggar, from which letters are forwarded by a runner three times in the week.

The ecclesiastical affairs are under the superintendence of the presbytery of Biggar and synod of Lothian and Tweeddale: the minister's stipend is £150, with a manse, and a glebe valued at £15. 10. per annum; alternate patrons, Lord Douglas and A. D. R. C. W. Baillie, Esq. The church, situated on the boundary between the two districts, is a very ancient structure, with a fine Norman doorway; the building was repaired and enlarged in 1828, at an expense of £300, and contains about 350 sittings. There were formerly two parochial schools, one in each district; but that of Wandell has been discontinued, and the parochial school at Lammingtoune has been removed from the village to a building erected for its use, within the boundary of Wandell, for the accommodation of both districts. The master has a salary of £35, with a house and garden, and the fees average £12. 10. per annum: connected with the school is a bursary at the High School and University of Glasgow, founded by the last countess of Forfar in 1737. The poor have the proceeds of bequests of £105 charged on the Lammingtoune estates, and £75 by the late Dr. Blinshall, of Dundee. There are some small remains of the ancient castle of Lammingtoune, the seat for some time of the renowned Sir William Wallace, consisting of a portion of the walls, and the western gable, with the arched window of the dining-room: the rest was destroyed, without the knowledge of the proprietor, by the factor on the estate, for the sake of the materials. On an eminence rising from the river Clyde are some remains of the Bower of Wandell, the resort of James V., when pursuing the sport of deer-hunting in the once thickly-wooded hills of Hartside. There are also numerous camps in various parts of the parish, of which three on Whitehill, at the northern extremity of Lammingtoune, are supposed to be of Roman origin: the largest of these, which nearly adjoin each other, is seventy yards long and forty yards in width, and is defended by a ditch five yards in breadth. On Starthope Hill, in Wandell, are the remains of a British camp, inclosed by a circular rampart of earth and stones; and there are numerous others, and also some Druidical relies. Scotch pebbles of great beauty are found in the bed of the Clyde.

Lamington House.jpg

Lamington House

Wiston & Roberton

WISTON and ROBERTON, a parish, in the Upper ward of the county of Lanark; containing, with the village of Newton, 929 inhabitants, of whom 141 are in the village of Wiston, 7 miles (S. W. by W.) from Biggar, and 201 in the village of Roberton, 9½ miles (S. W.) from the same town. This place comprehends the old parishes of Wiston and Roberton, which were united in the year 1772. Their names, of uncertain origin, were probably derived from proprietors, one of whom, from the designation of a farm in the former, called The Place, would appear to have been resident. The parish is about six miles in length and four in breadth: it is bounded on the south-east by the Clyde, and comprises 9400 acres, of which 3800 are arable, 200 woodland and plantations, and the remainder moorland and pasture. The surface is strikingly diversified with hill and dale. The hill of Tinto, or "the hill of fire," perhaps so called as originally a seat of the Druidical superstition, on the northern confines of the parish, has an elevation of 2300 feet above the level of the sea, commanding an unbounded prospect over the adjacent districts, and embracing, among numerous other prominent objects, the heights of Hartfell, Queensberry, Cairntable, and Goatfell, the Isle of Arran, the Bass Rock, and the hills in the north of England and Ireland. Nearly in the centre of the parish is the hill of Dungavel, rising with a double apex to a considerable elevation, and strongly contrasting, in its rich verdure and beauty of appearance, with the rugged, precipitous, and harsh features of the former. The scenery is in many points beautifully picturesque, and embellished with woods and thriving plantations. The soil is chiefly light and gravelly, alternated with a rich black loam, and in some parts with portions of marshy land; the crops are, oats, wheat, barley, potatoes, and turnips. The system of agriculture is advanced; the lands are drained and partly inclosed, and the farm houses and offices are daily improving in comfort and appearance. Much attention is paid to the management of the dairy, and to the breed of live-stock. From 300 to 400 milch-cows are kept on the several dairyfarms; they are now exclusively of the Ayrshire breed. The sheep, of which 4000 are on the average annually pastured, are chiefly of the black-faced Linton breed; the horses necessary for agricultural purposes are of the Clydesdale breed. The silver medal of the Highland Agricultural Society has been awarded to Mr. Muir, for his success in reclaiming waste land here, for which the abundance of lime affords every facility so far as that kind of manure is wanted.

The woods, of which more than one-half have been planted within the last few years, are very carefully managed; they consist of larch and Scotch fir, with an intermixture of various forest-trees. The substrata are chiefly greywacke, of which the hills are composed, red sandstone, and limestone; the last is extensively wrought, and the works produce annually about 18,000 bolls. In the seams of limestone are found imbedded corals, branches of trees, and shells of different kinds. Coal is supposed to exist, and an attempt was formerly made to explore it; but the works were suddenly suspended, and have not been since resumed. Hardington House, of ancient date, is a handsome residence, finely seated in a richly-planted demesne. The village is pleasantly situated; and facility of communication with Biggar, the nearest market-town, and with other places in the district, is afforded by good roads kept in due repair by statute labour, and by the turnpike-road from Stirling to Carlisle, which passes through the whole length of the parish. The rateable annual value of Wiston and Roberton is £4953. It is in the presbytery of Lanark, synod of Glasgow and Ayr, and in the alternate patronage of the Crown and Lord Douglas: the minister's stipend is £204. 9., with a manse, and the glebe is valued at £40 per annum. The church, formerly that of the old parish of Wiston, which was enlarged after the union of the two parishes, is a plain edifice adapted for a congregation of nearly 400 persons. In the village of Roberton is a place of worship for members of the Relief. The parochial schools of Wiston and Roberton are both kept up, afford a liberal education, and are well attended; the master of the former has a salary of £34. 4. 4., with £15 fees, and a house and garden; the master of the latter, a like salary, with £12 fees, and the same accommodations. In these schools more than 130 children receive instruction. A subscription library is supported, and has a wellassorted collection of books on general literature; and there is a library in connexion with the Sabbath schools, which is also open to the public. A friendly society, established for many years, contributed to reduce the number of applications to the parochial funds, but has now ceased to exist.

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